Presentation on theme: "How can you find a supported answer to an investigative question?"— Presentation transcript:
1 How can you find a supported answer to an investigative question? Scientific MethodHow can you find a supported answer to an investigative question?
2 Question This is the first step of the Scientific Method. May be asked by the teacherCould be asked by youIt should be a problem that can be testableThe question or statement of problem should include an independent and dependent variable.
3 HypothesisThis is what you expect to happen based on your observations and what you already know.Should begin with “I predict…because…”It’s OK if it’s wrong – this is how we learn.It should predict a relationship or trend and should include the independent and dependent variable
5 Independent VariableThis is the component of the problem that you are testing to see if it has an effect on something else.This is the variable that you CHANGE to determine if there is a pattern or relationship between that change and what you are measuring.A valid experiment has at least 3 levels of the independent variable
6 Dependent VariableThis is the component of the experiment that is MEASUREDThis variable’s measurement DEPENDS on the independent variable
7 Examples of Independent and Dependent Variables. How much water gives the greatest plant growth?Independent Variable: 1 liter, 2 liters, 3 liters of water.Dependent Variable: the more water is given, the more the plant will grow.
8 Controlled VariablesThese are the components of the experiment that you keep the same throughout the entire experiment.These are constant and are used to keep the experiment valid.
9 Standard of Comparison You must choose one of your three levels of the independent variable for the standard of comparison.The SOC is used as a point of reference to compare the results of your experiment too.Think of it as a starting point for discussing and analyzing data.There is not a correct SOC, but you must rationalize why you picked the one you did
10 MaterialsThis is a list of everything a person would need to test the question or problem.
11 ProcedureThis is a STEP BY STEP list of directions needed to test the question.Should be detailed enough that a stranger could follow the steps to test the question.Don’t assume that someone else will know what you are talking about.Should include diagramsShould include repeated trials
12 Measurement In science, we measure using the Metric System (SI) Mass – gramsLength – metersVolume – litersTemperature – CelsiusRemember prefixes – kilo, centi, milli
13 Data Table This is a chart that displays your results. For accurate results data tables must show multiple trials and an average.Include units in your data table.A general rule of thumb is to have at least 3 trials for most experimentsMultiple trials help give you more accurate resultsData Table should be clear enough for a stranger to understand exactly what is happening in an experiment
14 GraphsOnce you have gathered your data, you must pick an appropriate graph to display your resultsGraphs give your audience an easy visual from which to read the collected data
15 Types of Graphs Bar – used to compare data that cannot be connected Line or Scatter – shows the relationship between an independent and dependent variableX axis – independentY axis – dependent
16 Components of Graphs Title X and Y axis labeled correctly Units includedAppropriate scale
17 Analysis and Interpretation of Data Compare all data – do not just list data pointsDiscuss any trends in the dataTalk about any unusual data points
18 Possible Experimental Errors List possible errorsExplain how these errors could have affected the results of the experiment.
19 Conclusion Restate your hypothesis. Confirmation of hypothesis. – Is it accepted or rejected?Reasons for acceptance or rejection is explained and supported by the data
20 Recommendations for Further Use How will these results be used for further studying and investigation about the problem and issues related to the problem.
21 Scientific TheoryIt takes multiple experiments by many different people for a conclusion to become a theory.Many scientists have to get similar results and have similar conclusions before something becomes widely accepted.Compare to multiple sources – if findings are consistent across the board, it’s likely that something true has been discovered.