2 There are many ways to conduct science Examples:Observational- Field studySuch as animal behavior“Experimental Research” – Conducts controlled experiments.Tests one variableDifferent steps
3 Experimental Research “Usually associated with scientific method” One way of researching the natural world
4 Identify a Question or Purpose After observing the world around you, you can derive a problem that you want to find more aboutDerive a question based on observation above that you would like to investigate.AND/ORState purpose of experiment
5 Flip Book- Purpose/Question RationaleGives focus to the investigationFormatPurpose/Question: Statement or questionMy ResponsibilityRead for understandingExampleSee Film Canister Lab
6 Observation of film canister NO TALKINGLISTEN AND WATCH TEACHERBrainstorm…
7 Film Canister Lab-Purpose/Question: Does changing the amount of water in the film canister change the reaction time?Notice that the words purpose/question are underlined with a colon after the word “Question”
8 Background Information Scientist research and become knowledgeable about the subject and investigation that they are going to test.They know and understand key concepts relating to their topic .AND/ORThey know and understand other investigations that have already been conducted about their topic.
9 Flip Book- Background info RationaleProvide facts to understand the investigationFormatBackground Information: Paragraph of informationMy ResponsibilityReadTake notes and highlightMake connectionsExampleSee Film Canister Lab
10 Film Canister- Background Info Purpose/Question:Background Information:Cut and Glue in the Background Information for the Film Canister Lab onto your Lab Paper.Notice that the words Background Information are underlined with a colon after the word “Information”
11 Background Information There's nothing like a little rocket science to add some excitement to the day. Alka-Seltzer (an effervescence) is made of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), citric acid, and acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin). When you add water it starts to dissolve the Alka-Seltzer tablet. When the solid dry powders of sodium bicarbonate, citric acid, and acetylsalicylic acid are pressed together to make a tablet, being solids, the molecules are not mobile enough to react. Adding the right amount of water dissolves the chemicals and allows them to mingle and react. This creates a gas called carbon dioxide. As the carbon dioxide is being released, it creates pressure inside the film canister. The more gas that is made, the more pressure builds up until there is no more room in the film canister and the cap is blasted down and the canister is blasted up. The lid of the canister is the path of least resistance for the gas pressure building up inside, so it pops off instead of the stronger sides or bottom of the canister bursting open. We can thank Sir Isaac Newton for what happens next. When the build-up of carbon dioxide gas is too great and the lid pops off, Newton's Third Law explains why the film canister flies across the room: for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. The lid goes one way and the film canister shoots out of the tube in the opposite direction. This system of thrust is how a real rocket works whether it is in outer space or here in the earth's atmosphere. Of course, real rockets use rocket fuel.
12 HypothesisA HYPOTHESIS is a tentative statement that proposes a possible explanation to some phenomenon or event.A hypothesis:Is written in an IF…Then … Because statement.Relates two variables (the independent and dependent).Is testable.
13 **** Do NOT use I, we, me, etc.**** Flip Book-HypothesisRationaleClear, testable statementFormatHypothesis: If ____________________(Independent Variable)___________, then the ______________ _______(changes) (Dependent Variable) (Changes)because ________________________.(based on background info)**** Do NOT use I, we, me, etc.****My ResponsibilityForm an educated guess based on background information and prior knowledgeExampleSee Film Canister Lab
14 Identify VariablesIndependent Variable- the factor that you manipulate, the factor that you change or monitor in an experiment. CauseX-axisAnswers the question: What do I change/test?Dependent Variable- the factor that changes in response to the independent variable, the results, the outcome that is being measured or observed in an experiment. EffectY-axisAnswers the questions: What do I measure/observe for results?
15 Variables ContinuedConstant Variables- During the experiment to only test one variable OR the independent variable scientists use CONSTANTS.Constants are factors in an experiment that stay the same throughout the whole experiment.Answers the question: What do I keep the same?
16 Necessary to have a controlled experiment Flip Book- VariablesRationaleNecessary to have a controlled experimentFormatVariables:Independent: ONEDependent: ONEConstants: At least twoMy ResponsibilityIdentify one independent variableWhat do I change/test?Identify one dependent variable (the results)What do I measure/observe for results?Identify at least two constantsThese MUST stay the same through ALL trialsExampleSee Film Canister Lab
17 Film Canister- Hypothesis Purpose/Question:Background Information:Hypothesis: If the amount of water is increased then the reaction time of the lid popping off will decrease because there is less room in the canister for the pressure to build therefore popping off earlier.Variables:
18 Film Canister Lab- Variables Purpose/Question:Background Information:Hypothesis:Variables:Independent: Amount of Water (mL)Dependent: Reaction time(seconds)Constants: Brand of effervescent tablet.Amount of effervescent tablet
19 MaterialsA detailed list of all the equipment and materials needed to conduct the experiment.You must be specific and methodical so that someone could exactly duplicate your experiment.Use brand names and/or numbers for every single item on your listBullet the list with the details listed at the end of each item
20 Lists all equipment and materials used during an investigation Flip Book- MaterialsRationaleLists all equipment and materials used during an investigationFormatMaterials:Needs to be bullet pointsBrand namesQuantitiesMy ResponsibilityGather listed equipment and materialsORIdentify and gather the equipment and materialsExampleSee Film Canister lab
21 Film Canister- Materials Purpose/Question:Background Information:Hypothesis:Notice that the materials are bulleted and listed one after another.Variables:Materials:2 Alka-Seltzer tablets1 film canister with cap1 graduated cylinder1 thermometer1 timer/stopwatch100 mL of tap waterPaper towels to clean up mess
22 ProcedureWrite a detailed and precise procedure that includes the correct sequence of steps to be takenThe procedure should be specific and methodical so that another experimenter could duplicate the experiment without having to ask you ANY questions!Write for one level of the independent variable and add repetitions for repeated trialsWritten in step by step form using numbers
23 Flip Book- ProcedureRationaleLogical, detailed steps written so that another scientist could duplicate the exact labFormatProcedure:Listed in numerical stepsInclude multiple trials when applicableCan use “repeat” for multiple trialsMy ResponsibilityFollow the detailed steps exactlyAND/ORWrite the detailed steps to be followedExampleSee Film Canister Lab
24 Film Canister- Procedure Break the tablet in half.Measure 10 mL of tap waterMeasure the temperature of the water.Pour the 10 mL of tap water into the film canister.Add one half of the tablet to a film canister.Quickly cap the canister and turn upside down so the cap isresting on the table.Measure the time it takes to pop the top and record in the data table.Repeat steps 2-7 for one more trial.Repeat steps 2-8 for 20 mL of water.Cut and Glue in the Procedure for the Film Canister Lab onto your Lab Paper.Notice that the procedures are numbered and listed one after another.
25 Data Excellent way to organize and show trends in data. Many types of graphs to show data.Data TableDrawingsGraphsBar graph- most common, best when I.V. is not numerical.Line graph-mostly used when you have numerical I.V. and D.V.
26 Flip Book-DataRationaleUsed to organize the results of an investigation and used to identify trends and patterns in an investigationFormatData Table:Graph:My ResponsibilityAccurately collect and record data in an organized format (chart, table, graph, drawing, etc.)ExampleSee Film Canister LabIV-DV-ConstantsTrial 1Trial 2MeanTitle:D.V.:I.V.:
27 Film Canister- DataProcedure:Data Table:IV- Amount of Water- mLDV- Time in secondsConstantsTrial 1Trial 2MeanAmount of tabletTemp of water10 mL20 mLCut and Glue in the Data Table for the Film Canister Lab onto your Lab Paper.
28 THIS IS OUR EXAMPLE GRAPH MAKE YOUR OWN WITH YOUR OWN DATA!!! Film Canister - GraphProcedure:Data Table:Graph:THIS IS OUR EXAMPLE GRAPH MAKE YOUR OWN WITH YOUR OWN DATA!!!This zig-zag is to be used when intervals on the Y-axis start later than zero and may only be used ONE time from the zero to the start number
29 Conclusion Paragraph or several paragraphs stating: whether the data supported the hypothesis or not, the major findings including evidence from your data, include trends present in data, what happened that was unexpected (if any) and possible reasons why.Also include any recommendations that would improved your experimentRemember that science is done by humans so what are some human errors? Things you might not have been aware of before the experiment and know now that you would do differently.Could also include possible things for further study
30 THIS IS IN PARAGRAPH FORM- Use transition words between sentences Flip Book- ConclusionRationaleAnalyze and summarize the investigation to determine if the hypothesis has been supportedFormatConclusion:THIS IS IN PARAGRAPH FORM- Use transition words between sentencesBegin by restating the purpose.Restate the hypothesis and include whether or not the hypothesis was supported or unsupported.State and interpret the major findings from the investigation. This will act as the evidence to justify the claim (hypothesis was supported or unsupported). Include data from the lab and readings.Include any errors that might have occurred that would impact the results of the investigation, and any recommendations that may have improved the investigation.End with an application statement (real world connection or in class connection).ExampleSEE FILM CANISTER LABMy ResponsibilityWrite a paragraph or several paragraphs stating the major findings of the investigation and whether or not the hypothesis has been supported
31 Film Canister- Conclusion Procedure:Data Table:Graph:Conclusion:Using the sentence starters provided, complete the conclusion for this experiment.
32 Report out or Redo experiment Scientist review their investigation. They eithermake their studies known to the scientific community.It is subject to peer review.ORMake revisions to experimentRetest their revised investigation