# Scientific Method.

## Presentation on theme: "Scientific Method."— Presentation transcript:

Scientific Method

Testable Questions Testable questions should:
Be in the form of a question with a question mark. Be testable – can find the answer to it by doing an experiment or collecting data. Include the Independent Variable (what you want to change/vary) and the Dependent Variable (what you will measure).

Independent and Dependent Variables
Independent Variable Manipulated Variable What you are changing in the experiment “I Vary” Dependent Variable Responding Variable What you will measure in the experiment “Depends On” IV

Writing a Hypothesis A possible solution to your problem/question that can be tested. (A prediction) Must include the IV and DV Do NOT Explain why Examples If the (IV) is (changed this way), then the (DV) will (do this). I think/predict (IV choice) will (do this to the DV). Forbidden Words: Because, Affect, Effect, Change

Preparing an Experiment
Gather materials to perform your experiment Establish your Controls/Constants – things that must be kept the same in the experiment to make sure your experiment is VALID. Can change only one thing in the experiment – Independent Variable Do at least 3 trials to produce RELIABLE results and calculate the average.

Collect Data Make observations and measurements during your experiment
Create a data table to ORGANIZE and record your data Record data of 3 or more trials for RELIABILITY Calculate averages to minimize the affects of individual differences, unusual data, (outliers) or mistakes.

Data Table Title: (Testable Question with IV & DV)
Sample Data Table Data Table Title: (Testable Question with IV & DV) IV Choice #1 #2 #3 #4 Trial 1 (DV) Trial 2 Trial 3 Average

Validity, Reliability, Accuracy
Validity – narrows down what variable effects the outcome – only one IV; everything else must remain the same – controls/constants Reliability – repeat experiment & get the same results – multiple trials Accuracy – correct measurements and calculations

Analyze Data GRAPHS are used to show relationships and reveal patterns in data Analyze your data and determine the appropriate graph to use. Line graphs are used for data that is collected over a period of time Bar graphs are used when data is collected for individual events

Label the horizontal axis with the IV Label the vertical axis with the DV Use appropriate increments on the bars and lines. Start with zero. No broken scale. Label each bar or point with specific data

Sample Graph

Draw Conclusions Should include the following:
Restate the testable question and give the answer (use complete sentences with specific IV & DV wording). Give specific data numbers (maximum & minimum) to support your conclusion. Restate your hypothesis and tell whether the data supports your hypothesis or not (use specific data numbers).