2 Testable Questions Testable questions should: Be in the form of a question with a question mark.Be testable – can find the answer to it by doing an experiment or collecting data.Include the Independent Variable (what you want to change/vary) and the Dependent Variable (what you will measure).
3 Independent and Dependent Variables Independent VariableManipulated VariableWhat you are changing in the experiment“I Vary”Dependent VariableResponding VariableWhat you will measure in the experiment“Depends On” IV
4 Writing a HypothesisA possible solution to your problem/question that can be tested. (A prediction)Must include the IV and DVDo NOT Explain whyExamplesIf the (IV) is (changed this way), then the (DV) will (do this).I think/predict (IV choice) will (do this to the DV).Forbidden Words: Because, Affect, Effect, Change
5 Preparing an Experiment Gather materials to perform your experimentEstablish your Controls/Constants – things that must be kept the same in the experiment to make sure your experiment is VALID.Can change only one thing in the experiment – Independent VariableDo at least 3 trials to produce RELIABLE results and calculate the average.
6 Collect Data Make observations and measurements during your experiment Create a data table to ORGANIZE and record your dataRecord data of 3 or more trials for RELIABILITYCalculate averages to minimize the affects of individual differences, unusual data, (outliers) or mistakes.
7 Data Table Title: (Testable Question with IV & DV) Sample Data TableData Table Title: (Testable Question with IV & DV)IV Choice#1#2#3#4Trial 1(DV)Trial 2Trial 3Average
8 Validity, Reliability, Accuracy Validity – narrows down what variable effects the outcome – only one IV; everything else must remain the same – controls/constantsReliability – repeat experiment & get the same results – multiple trialsAccuracy – correct measurements and calculations
9 Analyze DataGRAPHS are used to show relationships and reveal patterns in dataAnalyze your data and determine the appropriate graph to use.Line graphs are used for data that is collected over a period of timeBar graphs are used when data is collected for individual events
10 Graph Results Title your graph: Use your testable question Label the horizontal axis with the IVLabel the vertical axis with the DVUse appropriate increments on the bars and lines. Start with zero. No broken scale.Label each bar or point with specific data
12 Draw Conclusions Should include the following: Restate the testable question and give the answer (use complete sentences with specific IV & DV wording).Give specific data numbers (maximum & minimum) to support your conclusion.Restate your hypothesis and tell whether the data supports your hypothesis or not (use specific data numbers).