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Cultural Frameworks.

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Presentation on theme: "Cultural Frameworks."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cultural Frameworks

2 Group Presentations Present your team’s analysis of the misunderstanding in the scenario you read. What was your discussion like? Did your team members all agree on the problem? What solutions might you suggest for this situation?

3 Final Project National Identity: What does it mean to be “an American”? What is the US “national identity”? Cultural Profile: Describe Americans according to the T/H-T dimensions. Provide recommendations for doing business with Americans. Socializing Influences: How are Americans socialized? What are the most important sources of values for American children? Regional Identity: Is Austin typical of Texas? Is Texas typical of the US? What regional patterns can you identify from your research? Demographics: What cultural sub-groups characterize Austin? What characteristics do various groups exhibit? Cultural Evolution/Influence: What issues (political, social, ethnic, generational, religious, etc.) are currently shaping American culture?

4 Using Cultural Frameworks

5 Models of Culture E. T. Hall The Silent Language
Culture Defines Boundaries – Dividing Line between What is Normal and What is Not (Consensual Sex vs. Rape in US and Mid-East) Culture Is Subconscious Perceived as “Real” or “Normal” Recognized Only when Severely Challenged (Taken from Dahl “Overview” Article)

6 Spencer-Oatey, H. (2000). Culturally Speaking : Managing Rapport through Talk across Cultures. London, Continuum Culture Dictates Expectation of Behavior from Others Interpretation of Meaning in Others’ Behavior So what happens when cultural norms are not shared?

7 Hofstede, Geert, (1991) Values - broad tendencies to prefer certain states of affairs over others Three Levels of Culture - Rituals (ways of greeting and paying respect) - Heroes (admired persons who serve as an example for behavior) - Symbols (words, color or other artifacts that carry a special meaning)

8 Different people may see the same event differently

9 Trompenaars/Hampden-Turner, (1998) Riding the Waves of Culture
Culture is made of Basic Assumptions: Universalism vs. Particularism Analyzing vs. Integrating Individualism vs. Collectivism Time as sequence vs. Time as synchronization Achieved status vs. Ascribed status Equality vs. Hierarchy

10 Universalism/ Particularism
Security, Predictability No Bold Action Self-Determinism Anarchy

11 Analyzing/Integrating
Holistic, Comprehensive Lack of Clarity about Specifics Analytical, Scientific Paralysis by Analysis

12 Individualism/Collectivism
Efficient, Decisive Inadequate, Unsupported Thorough, Consensual Indecisive, Unchanging

13 Time: Sequence/Synchronization
Synchronic Efficiency, Accomplishment Ignores Nuance/Complexity Polychronic Sees Multiple Opportunities Difficulty Setting Course of Action

14 Achievement/Ascription
Encourages Excellence Winning Valued over Humanity Noblesse Oblige Promotes Incompetence

15 Lacks Direction/Clarity Decisions Made Efficiently
Equality/Hierarchy Everyone Is Valued Lacks Direction/Clarity Decisions Made Efficiently Good Ideas Not Heard

16 Problems Clear/Resolvable
Affective/Neutral Problems Clear/Resolvable Emotion over Reason Logical/Rational Difficult to Read

17 Discussion Based on these cultural parameters, how would you describe the conflicts in the intercultural scenarios you analyzed earlier?

18 Exercise 3 Team 1: Denmark and Italy – Achievement/Ascription
Imagine that your team is a bi-cultural group as described below. Using the T/H-T handout, predict the challenges for your group working on a project. Team 1: Denmark and Italy – Achievement/Ascription Team 2: Switzerland and Venezuela - Universalist/ Particularist Team 3: Canada and Korea – Individualism/Collectivism Team 4: USA and China – Short Term/Long-Term Focus Team 5: Germany and Spain – Low/High Context Team 6: Spain and Japan – Affective/Neutral Team 7: Great Britain and Germany – Analyzing/Integrating

19 Break

20 Discussion Reflect on the cultural models we have discussed.
Where do you fall on the continua in the Trompenaars/Hampden-Turner model? Do you believe you are typical of people from your country of residence? What factors are responsible for variation within your country of residence? How helpful do you think the model is in predicting the behavior of people in your country of residence?

21 Cultural Difference Affects Business
Relationships Between Companies and their Representatives Business Systems Business Processes Areas of Emphasis Relationships Between Companies and their Representatives Customer/Supplier, Partners, Competitors Business Systems Accounting, Management, HR, Finance, PR/Marketing, Business Processes Project Planning, Staffing, Scheduling, Delivery, Customer Support, Maintenance Emphasis On-Time Delivery, Product Quality, Customer Responsiveness,

22 For Next Time Schedule meeting with instructor for next class
Memorize Trompenaars Cultural Features

23 Review: What Have We Learned So Far about Cultural Interaction?

24 Cultural Models Identify Differences in Expectation and Behavior
They Don’t Account for Individual Variation


26 Homework 2 Due for Session 5
Reflect on the cultural models we have discussed. Based on the Trompenaars model: Austrian and U.S. students: Create a profile of Chinese culture. Chinese Students: Create a profile of Austrian culture using the German values where necessary. Interview Austrian students to learn differences between German and Austrian culture. You will hand in a written cultural outline and present your findings in class.

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