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Group Processes and Work Teams Chapter Nine
© Copyright Prentice-Hall 2004 2 Group Dynamics Group dynamics focus on the nature of groups – the variables governing their formation and development, their structure, and their interrelationships with individuals, other groups, and the organizations within which they exist
© Copyright Prentice-Hall 2004 3 Group A group is a collection of two or more interacting individuals with a stable pattern of relationships between them who share common goals and who perceive themselves as being a group
© Copyright Prentice-Hall 2004 4 Groups Formal groups are created by an organization and are designed to direct members toward some important organizational goal Command groups are determined by the connections between individuals who are a formal part of the organization Task groups are formed around some specific task Informal groups develop naturally among an organization’s personnel without any direction from the management of the organization within which they operate Interest group Friendship group
© Copyright Prentice-Hall 2004 5 Types of Groups
© Copyright Prentice-Hall 2004 6 Group Dynamics Roles Norms Status Cohesiveness
© Copyright Prentice-Hall 2004 7 Role Concepts Role Role: The typical behaviors that characterize a person in a social context Role Incumbent Role Incumbent: A person holding a particular role Role Expectations Role Expectations: The behaviors expected of someone in a particular role Role Differentiation Role Differentiation: The tendency for various specialized roles to emerge as groups develop Common Roles Common Roles : Task-Oriented Role Task-Oriented Role: The activities of an individual in a group who, more than anyone else, helps the group reach its goal Socioemotional Role Socioemotional Role: The activities of an individual in a group who is supportive and nurturant of other group members, and who helps them feel good Self-Oriented Role Self-Oriented Role: The activities of an individual in a group who focuses on his or her own good, often at the expense of others
© Copyright Prentice-Hall 2004 8 Norms Generally agreed upon informal rules that guide group members’ behavior Prescriptive norms Prescriptive norms dictate the behaviors that should be performed Proscriptive norms Proscriptive norms dictate specific behaviors that should be avoided
© Copyright Prentice-Hall 2004 9 Norm Development
© Copyright Prentice-Hall 2004 10 Status The relative social position or rank given to groups or group members by others Formal Status Formal Status: Attempts to differentiate between the degrees of formal authority given employees by an organization Status Symbols Status Symbols: Objects reflecting the position of any individual within an organization’s hierarchy Informal Status Informal Status: The prestige accorded individuals with certain characteristics that are not formally recognized by the organization
© Copyright Prentice-Hall 2004 11 Group Cohesiveness The strength of group members’ desires to remain a part of their groups Determinants of cohesiveness: Severity of initiation External threat Group size History of success
© Copyright Prentice-Hall 2004 12 Social Facilitation Effect
© Copyright Prentice-Hall 2004 13 Social Loafing The tendency for group members to exert less individual effort on an additive task as the size of the group increases Additive task Additive task: A type of group task in which the each person’s contributions can be added together with another’s
© Copyright Prentice-Hall 2004 14 Social Loafing
© Copyright Prentice-Hall 2004 15 Social Loafing and Culture Individualistic Cultures Individualistic Cultures: National groups whose members place a high value on individual accomplishments and personal success Collectivistic Cultures Collectivistic Cultures: National groups whose members place a high value on shared responsibility and the collective good of all
© Copyright Prentice-Hall 2004 16 Overcoming Social Loafing Make each performer identifiable Make work tasks more important and interesting Reward individuals for contributing to their group’s performance Use punishment threats
© Copyright Prentice-Hall 2004 17 Team A group whose members have complementary skills and are committed to a common purpose or set of performance goals for which they hold themselves mutually accountable
© Copyright Prentice-Hall 2004 18 Teams vs. Traditional Work Structures
© Copyright Prentice-Hall 2004 19 Cross-Training in Teams
© Copyright Prentice-Hall 2004 20 Types of Teams
© Copyright Prentice-Hall 2004 21 Continuum of Autonomy In work groups, bosses have responsibility over decisions and are accountable for work outcomes. The workers themselves have very little autonomy By contrast, in self-managed work teams, the workers themselves have responsibility over decisions and are accountable for work outcomes Semiautonomous work groups are positioned between these two extremes
© Copyright Prentice-Hall 2004 22 Team Effectiveness Results
© Copyright Prentice-Hall 2004 23 Why Teams Fail Lack of cooperation Lack of support Reluctance to relinquish control Failure to cooperate with other teams
© Copyright Prentice-Hall 2004 24 Developing Successful Teams 1. Provide training in team skills 2. Compensate team performance 3. Communicate the urgency of the team’s mission 4. Promote cooperation within and between teams 5. Select team members based on their skills or potential skills 6. Be patient
© Copyright Prentice-Hall 2004 25 Skills Training Team Building Team Building: Formal efforts directed toward making teams more effective Key Areas of Team Training Key Areas of Team Training: Being a team member Self-management Team Training Exercises Role-definition exercises Goal-setting exercises Problem-solving exercises Interpersonal-process exercises
© Copyright Prentice-Hall 2004 26 Interpersonal Skills
© Copyright Prentice-Hall 2004 27 Self-Management Skills
Supervision in Organizations
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