Step up to Saxion. Familiar? Huntington: Clash of civilizations
Step up to Saxion. Culture What is “culture”? How can you measure or describe culture and cultural differences?
Step up to Saxion. Culture Definition of culture: Culture is the characteristics of a particular group of people, defined by everything from language, religion, cuisine, social habits, music and arts. Today, in the United States as in other countries populated largely by immigrants, the culture is influenced by the many groups of people that now make up the country.
Step up to Saxion. Culture Comparing cultures… is there a way to describe and measure differences? Could this be a helpful tool in working in international business to smoothen international relations? Or is it merely a hobby of certain individuals?
Step up to Saxion. Culture Some attempts to describe cultural differences: Edward Hall, The silent language Fons Trompenaars, model of national cultural differences Geert Hofstede, cultural dimensions theory
Step up to Saxion. Edward T. Hall Most important difference between cultures: - Proximics -High Context and Low Context cultures -Polychronic versus monochronic time
Step up to Saxion. High context vs. Low context Low context: -Explicit messages -Little attention for the status of the person, task oriented High context: -Not just the message is important -Relation oriented
Step up to Saxion. Trompenaars & Hampden Turner 7 Dimensions/dilemma’s of intercultural communication: Universalism vs. particularism Individualism vs. collectivism (communitarianism) Neutral vs. emotional Specific vs. diffuse Achievement vs. ascription Sequential vs. synchronic Internal vs. external control
Step up to Saxion. Universalism vs. Particularism
Step up to Saxion. Individualism vs. Collectivism
Step up to Saxion. Internal vs. External control
Step up to Saxion. Geert Hofstede Developed a theory to measure cultural differences. Problem: How to quantify culture?
Step up to Saxion. Geert Hofstede Defining culture in 5 dimensions, based on research at IBM: Power Distance index Individualism Uncertainty avoidance index Masculinity Long term orientation
Step up to Saxion. Power distance Power distance is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. Does not reflect an objective difference in power distribution, but rather the way people perceive power differences.
Step up to Saxion. Individualism The degree to which individuals are integrated into groups.
Step up to Saxion. Uncertainty avoidance index A society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. Reflects the extent to which members of a society attempt to cope with anxiety by minimizing uncertainty. People in cultures with high uncertainty avoidance tend to be more emotional. More attention for planning step by step and procedures
Step up to Saxion. Uncertainty avoidance index High uncertainty avoidance
Step up to Saxion. Low uncertainty avoidance Uncertainty avoidance index
Step up to Saxion. Masculinity The distribution of emotional roles between the genders. Masculine cultures' values are competitiveness, assertiveness, materialism, ambition and power, whereas feminine cultures place more value on relationships and quality of life.
Step up to Saxion. Dutch culture The Dutch culture belongs to the Nordic culture group. The culture that is the most similar is probably Danish culture. Hofstede scores: Low power distance, very low masculinity, high individualism, medium long term orientation and medium uncertainty avoidance.
Step up to Saxion. Factor analysis of the five dimensions of Hofstede for both Netherlands and Germany
Step up to Saxion. Assignment: Find out Hofstede scores for your own country and compare these with The Netherlands. Describe in an essay of maximum 400 words the differences and similarities with the Dutch culture, and indicate which differences you may expect when dealing with Dutch companies.