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1 Management Communications and Intercultural Contexts Zeenat Jabbar.

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1 1 Management Communications and Intercultural Contexts Zeenat Jabbar

2 2 A Definition of Culture “Culture is everything that people have, think, and do as members of their society.” Professor Gary P. Ferraro The Cultural Dimensions of International Business, 3e

3 3 Culture is composed of... Material objects Ideas, values, and attitudes Expected patterns of behavior

4 4 Some Principles of Culture All culture is learned. Culture is universal to human society. All cultures are constantly undergoing change. Some cultures change more quickly than others.

5 5 Some Principles of Culture Culture is not value-neutral. Not all cultures are equally complex. Virtually all cultures permit the development of sub-cultures. Culture can influence biology and biology can influence culture.

6 6 Functions of Culture Cultures universally respond to human problems and challenges by developing systems to deal with them. Economic systems Marriage and family systems Educational systems Supernatural belief systems

7 7 Cultural Change Cultures change because of internal forces such as discovery and innovation. Cultures change because of external forces such as diffusion and borrowing.

8 8 Issues Affecting Cultural Change Relative Advantage: Is it superior to what already exists? Compatibility: Is it consistent with existing cultural patterns? Complexity: Is it easily understood?

9 9 Ethnocentrism All cultures, to one degree or another, display ethnocentrism, or the tendency to evaluate a foreigner or outsider’s behavior by the standards of one’s own culture. All cultures also display the tendency to believe that they are somehow superior to all others.

10 10 Ethnocentrism We take our own culture for granted. We see our behavior as “correct” and others’ as somehow “wrong.” Ethnocentrism can enhance group solidarity within a society. Ethnocentrism can also foster prejudice, contempt, inaccurate stereotypes, and conflict.

11 11 Domestic Cultural Variables Gender Ethnicity Age Ability Preference

12 12 Dimensions of Culture Individualism vs. Collectivism Masculinity vs. Femininity Power Distance Uncertainty Avoidance Short-Term vs. Long-Term Orientation High vs. Low Context Immediacy and Expression

13 13 Cross-Cultural Communication Skills The capacity to accept the relativity of one’s own knowledge and perceptions The capacity to be non-judgmental A tolerance for ambiguity The capacity to communicate respect for other people’s ways, their country, and their values

14 14 Cross-Cultural Communication Skills The capacity to display empathy The capacity to be flexible The capacity for turn-taking The humility to acknowledge what you do not know or understand

15 15 Process Assumptions About Cross-Cultural Interactions The other person sees the situation the same way you do. The other person is making the same assumptions you are. The other person is (or should be) experiencing the same feelings you are. The communication situation has no relationship to past events.

16 16 More Process Assumptions The other person’s understanding is (or should be) based on logic, not feelings. The other person is the one who has the “problem” or who does not understand the logic of the situation. Other cultures are changing and becoming more like your own culture and, therefore, other people are becoming more like you.

17 17 Hofstede’s Value Dimensions Power Distance Uncertainty Avoidance Individualism Masculinity

18 18 Hofstede’s Dimensions Defined Power Distance is a measure of the interpersonal power or influence between a superior and subordinate as perceived by the least powerful of the two. Uncertainty Avoidance is the extent to which members of a culture will seek to reduce uncertainty or tolerate uncertainty by means of technology, law, or religion.

19 19 Hofstede’s Dimensions Defined Individualism is a measure of a culture’s behavioral focus, determining whether decisions and behaviors are made by individuals acting alone or collectively by social convention. Masculinity is a measure of the extent to which social and cultural roles are defined by sex and gender boundaries.

20 20 Communication Climates Evaluative vs. Descriptive Control-oriented vs. Problem-oriented Strategy vs. Spontaneity Neutrality vs. Empathy Superiority vs. Equality Certainty vs. Provisionalism

21 21 Variations In Value Orientation Relationship of Humans to Nature Subjugation to nature Harmony with nature Mastery over nature Time Orientation Past Present Future

22 22 Variations in Value Orientation Basic Nature of Human Beings Evil Neutral or mixed Good Activity Orientation Being Containing and controlling Doing

23 23 Variations in Value Orientation Relationships Among People Hierarchical Group Individualistic Orientation to Space Private Mixed Public

24 24 The Effective Global Executive Should Be Able to: Develop and use global strategic skills. Manage change and transition. Manage cultural diversity. Design and function in flexible organizational structures. Work with others and in teams. Learn & transfer organizational knowledge.

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