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Introduction to the New Testament

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1 Introduction to the New Testament
Wednesday October 2nd

2 What is the New Testament?
The part of our Bible that tells us the story of Jesus Christ and the early Christian church A collection of 27 documents written in the Greek language that the early Christians added to the Hebrew Bible as sacred scripture Includes the 4 Gospels, the Book of Acts, 21 letters and the Book of Revelations

3 Organization of the Hebrew Bible & New Testament
Torah (five books of Moses) A Nevi’im (Prophets & history of Israel) Kethuvim (Writings – poetry, wisdom, apocalypse of Daniel) Four Gospels (story of Jesus) Book of Acts (church history) & Paul’s Letters Hebrews, the Epistles & the Book of Revelations

4 Time of the New Testament
Jesus’ ministry was around the time of 27 to 30 CE in rural Galilee Oral tradition was how stories and news was spread Paul’s letters are the earliest writings in the NT (around 50 to 70 CE) The Book of Revelations was composed around 95 CE The early church spread from Galilee & Jerusalem throughout Asia Minor in the first few generations The Roman Empire ruled Asia Minor & southern Europe In retaliation for the Jewish revolt, the Roman Empire destroyed the city of Jerusalem, the Temple and the priesthood in 70 CE and began active persecution of the Jewish and Jewish-Christian communities

5 Map of the Roman Empire in Jesus’ Time

6 Map of the Gospel Communities

7 The Gospels Word Gospel derived from Greek word evangelion which means GOOD NEWS Tell us the story of Jesus Questions for you: What are the four Gospels? What is the first Gospel in the New Testament? Which Gospel was written first?

8 The Gospels cont. Mark Matthew Luke John 1st Gospel written
Written during a time of crisis – earthquakes and Jewish revolt against the Roman Empire – Nero was persecuting Jews & Jewish-Christians alike Theme of the “hidden Messiah” – Jesus’ true identity is kept secret and revealed through his suffering and death on the cross Matthew 1st Gospel in the NT – links to the Hebrew Bible with his genealogy of Jesus’ ancestors including Abraham & David Known as the most Jewish Gospel – Jesus is an observant Jew who teaches the torah to his followers Famous for the Sermon the Mount – the Beatitudes Luke Part of a two volume work (Luke-Acts) Written in a Greco-Roman community – Gentiles Luke’s Jesus emphasizes care for the poor Famous for Lukan stories of the Prodigal Son & the Good Samaritan John Doesn’t not follow the pattern of Mark, Matthew and Luke Doesn’t include the stories of Jesus’ birth, baptism or institution of communion Famous for the “I am” sayings “I am way” etc

9 The Book of Acts The story of the early church
Begins with the story of Pentecost First half is dedicated to the apostle Peter and Jewish-Christian community in Palestine Second half is dedicated to Paul and his mission to the Gentiles Second half of Luke’s 2 volume work Luke sees the church as the continuance of Jesus’ ministry on earth

10 Paul’s Letters Authentic Paul Attributed to Paul Romans 1 Corinthians
2nd Corinthians 1 Thessalonians Galatians Philippians Philemon 2 Thessalonians Colossians Ephesians Titus 1 Timothy 2nd Timothy

11 Map of Paul’s Ministry

12 Hebrews & the Epistles The Book of Hebrews was included in the NT because it argues that Jesus was born both a kingly and priestly Messiah (argument among early Christians and the Jewish community) The General Epistles were letters from church leaders to the entire church 1st & 2nd Peter, James, 1st, 2nd and 3rd John and Jude

13 The Book of Revelation The last book in the New Testament
Called apocalyptic literature because it talks about the end of times Apocalypse comes from the Greek word apokalypsis which means “unveiling” A book full of metaphors & symbolic language Written during a time of persecution in the Roman Empire (around CE) Represents the Christian hope for transformation of the world including the end of evil and the coming of God’s kingdom

14 Questions?

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