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English Pronunciation Practice 英语语音技巧突破

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1 English Pronunciation Practice 英语语音技巧突破
Lecture 4 Liaison and Assimilation 连读与同化

2 Liaison(or Sound-linking)
连 音

3 Liaison In English one word is not separated from another by pausing or hesitating; the end of one word flows straight on to the beginning of the next , e.g. first of all /'fә:st◡ әv ◡ 'ɔ:l/ some of us /'sΛm◡ әv◡ әs/ The linking of words in connected speech may be divided into the following types:

4 1.consonant + vowel Examples: put it on /'puti'tɔn/
look at it /'lukәtit/ think of it /'θiŋkәvit /

5 2.vowel + vowel a) ending with an unrounded-lip sound, add a /j/ sound. Examples: the other /ði◡j◡'Λðә/ he is my uncle. /hi: ◡j◡ iz mai◡j◡ 'Λŋkl/ she ate some./ ʃ i: ◡j◡әt sәm/

6 b) ending with a rounded-lip sound, add a /w/ sound.
Examples: two others /'tu: ◡w◡'Λðәz/ do it /'du: ◡w◡it/ how old /'hau◡w◡'әuld/

7 3. r-linking 3) When a word ending with “r” or “re” goes before a word beginning with a vowel sound /r/ is usually pronounced as a link. Examples: for ages /fәr 'eiʤiz/ her own /hә:r 'әun/ share out /'ʃεә r 'aut/ far away /'fa:rә 'wei/

8 However, there are special circumstances in which a final “r” is silent even when the following word begins with a vowel. a) When there is a /r/ in the same syllable, e.g. a roar of laughter /ә 'rɔ : әv 'la:ftә/ a rare animal /ә 'rεә 'æniml/ nearer and nearer /'niәrә әn 'niәrә/ b) when a pause is permissible between the two words (even if no pause is actually made) .e.g. He opened the door and walked in. /hi: 'әupnd ðә 'dɔ: әnd 'wɔ:kt in/

9 4) some English people link a final /ә/ or even /a:/ and /ɔ:/ to an initial vowel in the same group by inserting a /r/ sound even if there is no letter r in the spelling. The /r/ sound added in this way is called “intrusive r”. Its existence should be known but not imitated. Examples: China and Japan /'ʧainәr әn(d) ʤә'pæn/ drama and music /'dra:mәr әn(d) 'mju:zik/ law and order /'lɔ:r әn(d) 'ɔ:dә/ I saw a man /ai 'sɔ:r ә 'mæn/

10 Assimilation In connected speech, sounds, under the influence of their neighbors, are replaced by other sounds. Sometimes two neighboring sounds influence each other and are replaced by a third sound which is different from both the original sounds. This process is called assimilation.

11 3 types of assimilation Progressive(顺同化) Regressive(逆同化)
Reciprocal, or double(相互同化)

12 Progressive The assimilated sound is influenced by the preceding sound. For example: What’s this? /'wɔts 'ðis/

13 Attention ! The strong voiceless consonant of a pair replaces the weak voiced consonant in the closely connected speech, but do not make it a general rule to replace the weak voiced consonant by the strong voiceless in other cases. A voiceless plosive (爆破音) or fricative (摩擦音) is not assimilated to a voiced plosive or fricative which follows it.

14 Examples: not very /'nɔt 'veri/, not /'nɔd 'veri/
black door /'blæk 'dɔ:/, not /'blæg 'dɔ:/ this boy /'ðis 'bɔi/, not /'ðiz 'bɔi/ if they come /'if ðei 'kΛm/, not /'iv ðei 'kΛm/

15 Regressive The preceding sound is influenced by the one following it. For example,: /z/ news /nju:z/ /s/ newspaper /nju:speipә/

16 Reciprocal or Double Assimilation the neighboring sounds influence each other. For example: /t/ /w/ twenty /twenti/

17 The usage of assimilation
Assimilation changing the work of vocal cords(声带). Examples: /z/→ /s/ is/iz/ It’s easy./its 'i:zi/ has/hæz/ What’s happened? /'wɔts 'hæpnd/ used/ju:zd/ I used to. /ai 'ju:st tu/

18 2. Assimilation changing the position of the lips:
Before the bilabial sounds/m,p,b/,/n,t,d/ change to /m,p,b/ respectively. For example: in /in/ in bed /im 'bed/ ten/ten/ ten minutes /'tem 'minits/ don’t/dәunt/don’t be late./'dәump bi 'leit/ good/gud/ good-bye/gub bai/

19 3. Assimilation changing the place of articulation:
Before the velar sounds /k,g/, /n,t,d/ change to /ŋ,k,g/ in /iŋ/ in case /iŋ 'keis/ don’t /dәunt/ I don’t care. /ai 'dәuŋk 'kεә/ good /gud/ good girl /gug 'gә:l/

20 b) Before /ʃ,j/, /s,z/ change to /ʃ,ʒ / respectively.
this /ðis/ this shape /'ðiʃ'ʃeip/ this year /'ðiʃ'jiә/ has /hæz/ has she come /'hæʒ ʃi 'kΛm/ where’s yours /'wεәʒ 'jɔ:z/

21 c) The combinations of sounds /tj/ and /dj/ have changed into /ʧ/and/ʤ /in an unstressed syllable:
education /,eʤukei'ʃn/ not/,edjukei'ʃn/ situation /,siʧuei'ʃn/ not /,sitjuei'ʃn/ I’m glad to meet you. /aim 'gæld tә mi:ʧu/ Did you like it? /'diʤu 'laik it/

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