Presentation on theme: "Language and Grammar Grammar – rules used to organise and describe language Syntax - the way sentences are structured Parts of speech: Nouns – people,"— Presentation transcript:
1 Language and GrammarGrammar – rules used to organise and describe languageSyntax - the way sentences are structuredParts of speech:Nouns – people, places, things, ideas.A noun is a word that names – people eg studentplaces eg townthings eg chairideas eg anger, peaceProper nouns are official names with a capital lettereg Ms Budge, Dunedin, Logan Park High School.
2 A concrete noun refers to things which have a physical existence or that can be seen, touched or hearde.g book, house, pianoAn abstract noun refers to a quality rather than somethingwhich can be seen or touched e.g aroha, reputation, loyalty.Or ideas, attitudes, concepts or emotions e.g pain, education,Collective nouns are used when there is more than one of somethingeg pack of dogs, pride of lions
3 Test for a noun: if you can put a, an or the in front of the word, it will be a noun (except for proper nouns)eg The boy, an apple, the education of young people…Highlight your notes page 10 and 11 boxesDo activity 2 on page 12Articles – the, a, anDefinite (or specific) article eg the chair - specifies a particularthing or personIndefinite (or unspecific) article eg a chair - doesn’t specify whichparticular thingor an apple…..
4 An adjective is a word which modifies or adds meaning to a noun or pronoun eg the old bookThey can come before or after the noun and are sometimes calledmodifiers. eg the runners looked hot and tiredMany adjectives can be used to compare one thing with another byusing their plain (normative), comparative, or superlative forms.Plain: Comparative: Superlative:bigsmallblueIrregular adjectives don’t follow the er/est patterneg good, better, best
5 Highlight notes page 17 and do activity 6 and 7 A pronoun is a word which takes the place of a noun toavoid repetitioneg Hope took Hope’s bagShe took her bagPersonal pronouns eg I, me, you, your, she, he, we, they …Interrogative pronouns are used to replace a noun in questionswho, whose, which, what…Relative pronouns – who, when, which, that are also relativepronouns. They relate back to the nouns and pronouns thatprecede them. “Who” refers to persons… “Which” to things..
6 Read page 13 - 14 and highlight and do Activity 3 pg 15 Do Activity 4 and 5 page 16A verb is a word which denotes:- action eg she runs- feeling eg he likes- possession eg they own- state of existence eg I amVerbs also show tense, or when the action happened.Some examples of tense: present tense eg paintspast tense eg paintedfuture tense eg will paintIn general we identify verbs by their infinitive (or base) formAn infinitive combines the preposition “to” with the first person, simple present form of the verbeg to join, to write, to imagine, to watch, to run, to paint…..
7 Imperatives are the command form of the verb. eg Go. Stop. Wait. Run. Complete verbs change for person and tense and can forma sentence.eg She knew the answer. He thinks carefully.The participles need the help of auxiliary (extra) verbs to makecomplete verbs.Eg I walking XXI am walking (am is the auxiliary)Highlight notes on page 20, 21 and 22and do activities 8, 9.Second handout do part 3 parts of speech:pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, root words,conjunctions, prepositions
8 A simple sentence contains one subject and one complete verb. (It begins with a capital letter and ends with a fullstop, or question mark,or exclamation mark).Eg The student completed the assignment.The verb here is “completed.” The subject indicates the action andanswers the question who or what in front of the verb.Who completed? Ans: The student. The student is the subject.Object. This sentence also has an object. The object is a personor thing a verb acts upon. It answers the question, whom/whatafter the verb.The student completed what?Answer: the assignment. The assignment is the object.
9 Active or PassiveA verb is active when the subject of the sentence is doing the actionindicated by its related verb. A verb is passive when the subjectof the sentence is having the action indicated by its related verbdone to it.The student completed the assignment. ACTIVEThe assignment was completed by the student. PASSIVEHighlight note on page 23 Active and Passive Voice.Do Activity 11 on page 24And activity 12
10 Adverbs: An adverb is a word which modifies or adds meaning to a verb eg he walked quicklyto an adjective eg extremely old manor to another adverb eg very quicklyThey indicate how (manner) eg she called loudlywhere (place) eg they climbed downwhen (time) eg The news came yesterdayhow much (degree) eg She sang very wellMany adverbs end in “ly” eg slowly, quickly, recently….
11 Highlight the note on adverbs on page 25 and do activity 13 page 26 Prepositions are words that make connections between two things.They show the relationship in place of one thing to another.Eg she went __________ the bridgeEg over, under, across, around, through, on, past, behind etcAnother preposition is “of”Highlight page 26 note on prepositions and do activity 14
12 Conjunctions literally mean joining words. A conjunction is a word which joins ideas, words or parts of a sentence.There are 2 main types of conjunctions:Co-ordinating conjunctions: both sentences are equally important.eg I go to school and I have a job. Eg and, or, but, soSub-ordinating conjunctions: joins a sentence which gives a reasonor condition. Most conjunctions are used to introduce subordinate clauses.
13 Because he revised his work, it had few mistakes. If I pass my exams, I’ll go out.If, because, although, whether, while, which, provided, unless….etc……Highlight page 28 and 29 notes on conjunctions.
14 Sentences Types Parts of speech in sentence types: Parts of speech are combined to form sentences.Nouns and pronouns – say what you want to talk aboutAdjectives – give extra information about the nounsVerbs – explain the actionAdverbs – give extra information about verbs, adjectives or other adverbsA noun phrase, adjectival phrase, prepositional phrase, verbal phrase and adverbial phrase function in the same way as a noun, adjectives, verbs and adverbs.Highlight page 29. Do activities 17, 18 and 19
15 Subject, Predicate and Object in Sentences The subject is the doer – who or what is talked about.If the subject is a noun phrase (e.g. the small boy) the main noun and verbmust agree (e.g. the small boy catches the ball)The subject usually goes at the start of a sentence.The predicate is what is said about the subject and usually follows the subject.To check which is the subject and which is the predicate, pick out the verb and ask who or what. E.g. The babysitter lives across town but arrives on time.Verb = arrives. Who arrives? The babysitter. The babysitter is the subject.The object of a sentence part of the predicate so ask “what” or “to whom”.
16 Activities – sentence parts Read and highlight pages Do activity 20.In second hand out do Part One Sentences.
17 Phrases and ClausesA phrase is a group of words without their own complete verb or predicate. Phrases can not stand alone but are used to add detail to sentences.Types of phrases –prepositional phraseadverbial phraseadjectival phrasenoun phraseverbal phrase
18 ClausesA clause has its own subject and predicate so must have a verb.A clause can be part of a sentence OR stand alone.A subordinate clause depends on the main clause to make sense.e.g. It was raining (main clause) so I took my umbrella (subordinate clause)Your turn:The aeroplane circled the airport because a storm was ragingHighlight page 34, do activity 21.Revisit phrases and clauses handout from creative writing unit.
19 From second handout do part 4 Using a variety of sentence types The type of sentence depends on the type of writing – informal writing uses simple sentences, more formal writing uses more complex sentences. Sentences can be classified as one of the following:Complete – has at least one complete verbMinor – part of the sentence is missing but it makes senseIncomplete – part of the sentence is missing and it doesn’t make senseSimple – complete and had only one verbCompound – two simple sentences joined with a conjunctionComplex – two simple sentence joined by a subordinating conjunction creating a major and minor sentenceCompound Complex – A compound and a complex sentenceHighlight pages 35-36From second handout do part 4 Using a variety of sentence types