2 1. What was Ramapithecus and what was the conclusion about his origin? Small brained primatePrecursor to orang-utan (not humans)
3 2. What are Lucy’s genus and species? Where and when was she found? Australopithecus afarensis in Ethiopia (Hadar)Named after Beatles song “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds”
4 She was bipedal (could stand and walk upright) 3. Lucy is said to represent an important link between humans and apes because of what part(s) of her body? Explain.She was bipedal (could stand and walk upright)Pelvis, legs, feet and locking knees
5 Fossilized footprints (from 3.6 million years ago) 4. What was Dr. Mary Leakey’s important discovery? What did she find and what was the significance?Fossilized footprints (from 3.6 million years ago)Identical to our feet.Bi-pedalism was older than we thought.
6 Most concentrated and earliest fossils related to human evolution. 5. Read page 36-37, only the paragraph that starts “Beginning about 4 million…” What evidence is there that humans originated in Africa?The Great Rift ValleyMost concentrated and earliest fossils related to human evolution.Mitochondrial DNA samples.(4 million years ago Australopithecus)(1.8 million years ago Homo habilis)
7 1. Define “nomadic.” Use a dictionary. No fixed dwelling/home- wanderingMoving around, temporary settlement
8 2. In the Paleolithic, people lived in a hunter-gatherer society. What did the men do?Hunt- big game (mammoths, reindeer, bison, cattle, horses)b) What did the women do?Gather food- 80% of diet (roots, potatoes, honey, berries, fruit, shellfish)c) What kind of community did they have?Nomadic- small groups, bands of 5-10 families (would join other bands for marriage)
9 1. Define “agrarian.” Use a dictionary. Managing the land. Growing crops (grain, vegetables, fruit) and raising animals.
10 Better tools for clearing land for crops (wheat and grain) 2. Humans learned to harness nature by planting crops and domesticating animals. Give a few details for what or how they planted and domesticated.They made beer and mead.Better tools for clearing land for crops (wheat and grain)Animals for meat, leather, dairy and farm work. (cattle, sheep, goats, pigs)
11 Permanent towns and cities Art, music, sports and leisure 3. Hunter-gatherers lived in the Paleolithic and farmers lived in the Neolithic. They were the building blocks of civilization. List some of the characteristics of civilization from the last paragraph on page 46.A class systemPermanent towns and citiesArt, music, sports and leisureSpecialize in other jobs (not farming)Complex religions
12 4. What do you think about all this? Humans construct knowledge with experience and time.We are like dwarfs sitting on the shoulders of giants. We see more, and things that are more distant, than they did, not because our sight is superior or because we are taller than they, but because they raise us up, and by their great stature add to ours.John of Salisbury, 1159AD (12th century theologian and author)
13 1. Where and when was Stonehenge built? In the Neolithic Period. Salisbury Plain, Southern England3100BC-1100BC
14 2. In your words, what were the four steps in raising a sarsen stone? No one is sure but…roll the rock to a hole, tip the rock forward by using a lever, pull it up with ropes, stabilize with rocks.