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Foundations of Civilization

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Presentation on theme: "Foundations of Civilization"— Presentation transcript:

1 Foundations of Civilization
Prehistory-300 B.C.

2 Understanding Our Past
Section 1

3 What is History? What is Prehistory?

4 Studying the Historical Past
Prehistory= the long period of time before people invented writing. Historians= are scholars who study and write about the historical past. How do Historians learn about the past?

5 Artifacts Artifacts=are object made by humans
What is considered an artifact??

6 Investigating Prehistory
Scholars want to learn about the origins and development of people and their societies. This field of study is called Anthropology. Anthropologist study things like bones and cultures. What is a culture?

7 Investigating Prehistory
Archaeology is the study of past people and cultures through their material remains. Remains include things such as tools, weapons, pottery, clothing, and jewelry. Archaeologists find and analyze artifacts to learn about life during prehistory as well as during historical times. Archaeologists work with other experts.

8 Video What is Archaeology? YouTube video

9 You be the Archaeologist
Based on the artifacts we come up with in class, what can you tell about the person who owned the belongings? Be the Historian and write a brief history about this person.

10 Discoveries and Africa and Beyond
Mary Leakey and Louis Leakey searched in the Olduvai Gorge and found some ancient tools. They concluded that whomever made them had learned to develop technologies to help them survive

11 Hominids Mary Leaky found the skull of a hominid in 1959.
Hominids are a group that includes humans and their closest relatives, all walk upright and on two feet. Donald Johanson found many pieces of a single hominid dating back to 3 million years ago. Lucy

12 Group Work Complete sections B on the note taking study guide. You may work with a partner. 10 minutes only! 1. Australopithecines 2. Homo habilis 3. Homo Erectus Homo sapiens

13 Early Hominid Groups Australopithecines all lived in Africa about 7 million years ago. (Lucy) Homo Habilis (“Handy man”) lived 2 million years ago and were the first to invent tools. Homo Erectus( “upright man”) appeared around 2 million years ago. Larger brains and bones. They used new tools. FIRST TO USE FIRE!!!

14 Homo Habilis

15 Homo Erectus

16 Homo Sapiens Between 250,000 and 100,000 years ago, Homo erectus disappeared and Homo sapiens appeared. MODERN HUMANS! Neanderthals are another group of homo sapiens that appeared but they eventually disappeared.



19 Turning Point: Neolithic Revolution
Section 2

20 Old vs. New Stone Age 2 million B.C. - 10,000 B.C.
OLD Stone age (Paleolithic) 10,000 B.C. to the end of prehistory NEW stone age (Neolithic) During the new stone age people began to develop skills and technologies that led to dramatic changes in their everyday lives.

21 Old Stone Age: Nomads Nomads are people who move from place to place to find food. 20-30 people in small groups Men hunted and fished while women and children gathered fruits, nuts, grains, or shellfish.

22 Developed strategies for survival during the Old Stone age
Made tools with stone, bone, or wood Developed language Learned to travel across water

23 Neolithic Revolution Known as the transition from nomadic life to settled farming. Marked the beginning of the New Stone Age. People settled in permanent villages and developed new skills and technologies. Early farmers domesticated plants and animals.

24 Earliest Villages Established
Jericho (pg. 14) Populations of a few thousands Surrounded by a huge wall (2 soccer fields) Catalhuyuk

25 What new technologies did people invent as a result of agriculture?
Read page 15. come up with a list.

26 Beginnings of Civilization
Section 3

27 First Cities and Civilizations Arise
All settled along major rivers. These areas favored farming by spreading silt. Farmers could produce surpluses of food. This allowed for villages to grow into cities.

28 River Valley Civilizations
Civilization is a complex, highly organized social order.

29 First Civilizations in the Americas
First civilizations were located in the highlands of Peru, Mexico, and Central America

30 Basic features that define civilization
Organized Governments Complex Religions Job Specialization Social Classes Arts and Architecture Public Works Writing

31 Civilizations Change Over Time
Environment Affects People’s Lives. Need natural resources Natural disasters

32 Civilizations Change Over Time
Cultural Diffusion= The spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another. Trade Warfare

33 Civilizations Change Over Time
Cities Grow into City-States controlled by rulers, priests, and nobles.

34 First Empires An Empire is a group of states or territories controlled by one ruler.

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