Presentation on theme: "Helthy diet – myths and reality Dr. Shalimova Oksana Orel State Agrarian University (RUSSIA)"— Presentation transcript:
Helthy diet – myths and reality Dr. Shalimova Oksana Orel State Agrarian University (RUSSIA)
The plan of lecture Why do We need a good food? Molecular nutrition Briefly about carbohydrates Damage to refined sugar Proteins Not produce amino acids Quality of animal and vegetable proteins The fats Essential fatty acids Vitamins Minerals The main dietary guidelines The ideal diet
"Rubai" of Omar Khayyam Oh, if, taking the verses sofa Yes, in a jug of wine and putting his bread in his pocket, I spend with you a day in the ruins, - I would have envied anyone Sultan.
Why do We need a good food? 1 - all of the cells and tissues of the body are formed from the foods we eat. 2 - the food is a source of energy necessary for the functioning of the organism. 3 - the food is the main part of the environment with which we interact. 4 - the food was set up in order to enjoy it, to be an integral part of the joy of life, and our senses allow us to appreciate the quality and taste of the product.
Our organism need as many calories as you need to active life. Individual basal metabolic rate depends on the sex, size, and weight. Our physical activity has a significant impact on the amount of calories we need. On average, women need 2000 calories, and men - 2700 calories. Heavy manual labor may require not less than 4000 calories. Expended all this energy we get from food.
Molecular nutrition If your have an ideal weight 70 kg, your body contains about 40 kg of water and 15 kg of fat. In addition, your body contains 15 kg of proteins, carbohydrates and derived organic compounds, plus bone minerals such as calcium and phosphorus.
Briefly about carbohydrates Carbohydrates - a conglomerate of five simple sugars, of which the most important is glucose. For the assimilation of monosaccharides (glucose, fructose and galactose) digestion is required. Table sugar and maltose (disaccharides) are digested into simple sugars in minutes.
Damage to refined sugar Depletion of vitamin B in the organism. Diseases of the teeth. Inhibition of the immune system. Increased the amount of fat in the blood. Promotion of hypoglycemia and possible onset of diabetes. Gastric irritation that occurs when the stomach contains more than 10% sugar. Constipation.
Proteins Every cell of the organism is composed of many different proteins. Proteins make up about three-fourths of the solids of the body. Our ogganism contains more than 2000 needed for the vital functions of enzymes, consisting entirely of protein.
Not produce amino acids Nine of the twenty-two amino acids we get from the foods we eat, and the others are synthesized by the organism. These nine amino acids that the body can not produce are called essential amino acids. These include: lysine, methionine, histidine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, threonine, valine.
Our body breaks down daily about 300 g of protein Almost 100% failure of the protein deficit is also due to a high content of protein in plant foods. If we eliminate from the diet of meat, poultry, milk products, fish and eggs, consuming 2000 calories from a variety of unrefined products, we can provide high quality standard recommended dietary protein.
Quality of animal protein is better than the quality of vegetable protein. This is another myth associated with food. Simple logic dictates that the animals get their protein from plant sources, where the selection of amino acids perfectly balanced and meets the requirements of animals. When we eat eggs, milk and meat products, we have a second-rate protein, which contains the essential amino acids necessary for us, yet we deprive them of a balanced mix. If this relationship is broken, it can be a factor in the emergence of atherosclerosis and heart disease.
Fat in the fire Fats are found in great abundance - in seeds, nuts, grains, fruits, and other plant sources. Most of the fat consumed is produced from animal products containing highly concentrated fat calories. Except for the olives, avocados and nuts, the fat content in most plant products is relatively low. In animal food content of fat is high. Lean beef typically contains at least 50% of calories derived from fat, and beef first grade, more than 80%. Butter and sour cream - it's almost 100%-s media fatkalory. If our body will get fat from vegetable sources, it will help to change it fatkalory concentration.
Essential fatty acids Essential fatty acids must be ingested from food, because the organism can not synthesize them. Linoleic and linolenic acid - the only known fatty acids, which are essential for normal human functioning. Unrefined polyunsaturated fats are a perfect source for the essential needs of the organism and for healthy cell membranes. Essential fatty acids play an important role in the transport and metabolism of fats. In combination with cholesterol or proteins may contribute to the production of cellular energy in the mitochondria.
Vitamins Vitamins - it's essential nutrients. Thousands of enzymatic reactions in the body's cells depend on one or more specific vitamins. Vitamins A, D, E and K - fat soluble and can be stored in the organism for a longer period than the water- soluble vitamins. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed along with dietary fats. Vitamins C and B-group (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, pantothenic acid, biotin, and vitamin B12) - is water-soluble substances, and persist in the organism for long. Most of the vitamins of the group out of the body in the urine. Pure vegetarians may need special supplements of these nutrients.
Minerals For normal functioning of our organism needs a sufficient amount of minerals. Those in our body has eighteen. The best source of dietary minerals - is our food. Unlike vitamins, minerals during heating are not destroyed. Some of them are needed by the body in very large quantities. These include calcium, potassium, magnesium, chlorine, sodium and phosphorus. Other minerals needed by the body in small amounts. Vital importance in human nutrition have the following elements: chromium, fluoride, copper, cobalt, iodine, vanadium, manganese, selenium, molybdenum and zinc.
The main dietary guidelines The first idea - eat quality food, and let it be as close as possible to the natural mind. Try to keep most of the nutrients coming into your body from unrefined, raw products. The second basic principle is the regularity of supply. The third idea - do not drink water during meals. Avoid stimulating foods and beverages. Remember the simple principle - too many products, no matter how useful, can harm us.
The ideal diet The ideal diet excludes all refined products. It should avoid use of refined proteins, such as gluten and protein meat. Rare use of refined products will not cause harm, but the ideal goal is to have the food in the form in which it is given to us by nature, adding nothing. Primacy of meat as a carrier of essential nutrients was a myth. Current scientific research confirms the absolute nutritional vegetarian diet. Milk products and eggs are not so necessary, and they can even cause serious illness. With the exception of vitamin B12, plant foods - vegetables, fruits, grains, legumes, seeds and nuts - contains everything you need to develop a healthy body and maintain its effective functioning.
What to do? Each week, consume a greater variety of fruits, vegetables, cereals and legumes. Every meal should include a limited number of products. Potatoes can be eaten every day. Try to keep the breakfast was most enjoyable, and dinner - the easiest. Do not eat between meals. Eat at intervals of approximately 5 hours. If you have a problem with being overweight, try to eat only 2 times a day, doing without supper.
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