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During this unit we will –

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2 During this unit we will –
Further your understanding of the major belief systems that have dominated civilization for thousands of yeas. Engage in a variety of group activities Successfully complete several Graphic Organizers Successfully complete a unit notes packet Examine several primary source documents Successfully complete several DBQ assignment Successfully complete one Unit exam, which will include one thematic essay Have fun and share a few laughs

3 Do Now!!! Do Now, Now!!! TTYN What is a belief system?
How many belief systems can you name? TTYN

4 Buddhism Hinduism Christianity Animism Taoism Islam Confucianism Judaism


6 Animism Animism is a superstitious way of life that believes in spirit worship, fetishism and the worship of nature. Although manifesting itself in different ways, animism believes that everything in nature has a soul and that there is a spirit or force residing in every living and inanimate object, including animals, rocks, trees, mountains, rivers, volcanoes, heavenly bodies or other created objects.  In light of the recent events in Japan, is it too far-fetched to believe that nature has a soul and that there is a spirit or force residing in everything?

7 Animism Timeline Animism is characteristic of primitive social structures in tribal, often nomadic communities. It is typically associated with the early Bronze Age (3000 – 2000 BC) cultures of the pre-Christian era. Followers of Animism - The number is unknown. Almost all practicing Buddhist, Islamic, Hindu and Christian devotees of present day SE Asian societies also include in their belief systems elements of animism

8 Hinduism Timeline Founder Geography Sacred Text
Widely considered the world’s oldest religion. Many people suggest that Hinduism in not a religion, much like Christianity or Judaism, but more of a way of life. Hinduism evolved around 1500 BCE Founder None. Hinduism derives from the word "India” and refers to traditions and philosophies that have evolved over thousands of years Geography Sacred Text Vedas and Upinshads

9 Basic Tenants of Hinduism
Universal Spirit or Brahman Hindu thinkers came to believe that everything in the universe was part of the unchanging, all-powerful spiritual force called brahman.  According to Swami Sivananda, one of the great Yoga masters of the 20th century “Brahman or the Supreme Self is beyond time and space, causation. He is limitless. He is tranquil. He shines with equal effulgence in all bodies. He cannot be any particular thing. He is Chaitanya or pure consciousness. He is Vastu, Atman or Brahman or the Supreme Self is the hidden treasure. It is the jewel of jewels. It is gem of gems. It is the imperishable, inexhaustible supreme wealth, which no dacoit can rob. It is Chintamani of Chintamanis that will give man whatever he wishes.” In other words, brahman is too complex an idea for most people to comprehend, so they worships gods that give a concrete form to brahman.

10 Basic Tenants of Hinduism
To Hindus, every person has an essential self, or atman. Atman is just another name for brahman. For Hindus, the ultimate goal of existence is to achieve moksha (MAHK SHUH), or union with brahman. To accomplish this – you must free yourself from selfish desires. Because Hindus believe that this goal cannot be completed in just one lifetime, they believe in reincarnation. Thus, through reincarnation, you are able to continue working towards moksha. Karma All actions of a person’s life that affect their next life Dharma Religious and moral duties. These duties vary according to class, occupation, gender, or age. By obeying one’s dharma, a person acquires merit for the next life. Hinduism provides direction to the daily lives of Hindus. It teaches that people should remain in their social group or caste

11 Hinduism Caste System The Caste System is a rigid class structure based on Hinduism which is found in India. It is believed that if one leads a good life, following good karma and dharma, then they will be rewarded by being reincarnated as a person belonging to the next highest level in the Caste System. However, if one is wicked during their life, they will be demoted, and possibly even removed from the Caste System altogether. Outcasts, or Untouchables, are members of Hindu society thought to have been removed from the Caste System, with no hope of returning to it, due to their misdeeds in previous lives. Work that is deemed unclean for all other Hindus is reserved for these Outcasts.

12 Complete on page 9 of Notes Packet
Hinduism Complete on page 9 of Notes Packet Caste System

13 Complete on page 10 of Notes Packet
Hinduism Complete on page 10 of Notes Packet Caste System The caste system is an important part of Hinduism. Caste are social groups into which people are born and out of which they cannot move during a lifetime. In Next Life In This Life If good and obeys caste rules Higher Caste A Person Is born into a caste If bad and breaks caste rules Lower Caste

14 Hinduism TTYN – complete the graphic organizer with important facts about Hinduism Hinduism Sacred Texts Vedas and Upinshads

15 Tripitaka or “Three Baskets of Wisdom”
Buddhism Timeline Buddhism currently has about 376 million followers and is generally listed as the world's fourth largest religion. Buddhism shares many of the core concepts of Hinduism. Buddha or the “Enlightened One” was born a Hindu in 500 B.C. Founder Siaddhartha Gautama or Buddha Geography Sacred Text Tripitaka or “Three Baskets of Wisdom”

16 Buddhism Teachings ,Beliefs, and Origins
Siddhartha was born into the Brahmin caste, and by all accounts, led a luxurious lifestyle. However, he was troubled by the human misery that he saw around him everyday. While meditating under a sacred tree, he found the answer to his question, and he was thereafter referred to as Buddha. Upon reflection, he deduced that desire was the root cause of all suffering. This idea has been recorded as the Four Noble Truths Four Noble Truths Siddhartha's philosophy of the nature of human suffering and its relation to desire is articulated by these four statements: Life is full of pain and suffering. Human desire causes this suffering. By putting an end to desire, humans can end suffering. Humans can end desire by following the Eightfold Path

17 Buddhism Eightfold Path
The Wheel of Life is one of the most important symbols of Buddhism, as it represents the endless cycle of life through reincarnation and because each of its eight spokes represents one of the teachings of the Eightfold Path. Know that suffering is caused by desire. Be selfless and love all life. Do not lie, or speak without cause. Do not kill, steal, or commit other unrighteous acts. Do not do things which promote evil. Take effort to promote righteousness. Be aware of your physical actions, state of mind, and emotions. Learn to meditate.

18 spiritual enlightenment
Buddhism Reincarnation Buddhists believe in an endless cycle of reincarnation, or samsara, which is similar to beliefs of Hinduism. However, Buddhists do not believe that deities are responsible for the phenomenon. In addition, the Caste System is rejected by Buddhists who believe instead that one is reincarnated until they can achieve nirvana, best described as spiritual enlightenment. The concept of reincarnation can best be illustrated using an infinity symbol: Nirvana spiritual enlightenment What Does Nirvana mean to you?

19 Do Now and then “Pair and Share”
Buddhism Do Now and then “Pair and Share” In complete sentences, describe what Buddha might be suggesting with each of the following quite. 1. “It is better to conquer yourself than to win a thousand battles. Then the victory is yours. It cannot be taken from you, not by angels or by demons, heaven or hell.” 2. “All that man experiences springs out of his thoughts. If his thoughts are good, the words and deeds will also be good. The result of good thoughts, words and deeds will be happiness. This happiness never leaves the person whose thoughts are good. Happiness will always follow him like his shadow that never leaves him.” 3. “Those who attempt to conquer hatred by hatred are like warriors who take weapons to overcome others who bear arms. This does not end hatred, but gives it room to grow.  But, ancient wisdom has advocated a different timeless strategy to overcome hatred. This eternal wisdom is to meet hatred with non-hatred. The method of trying to conquer hatred through hatred never succeeds in overcoming hatred. But, the method of overcoming hatred through non-hatred is eternally effective. That is why that method is described as eternal wisdom.”

20 Buddhism TTYN – complete the graphic organizer with some of the important facts regarding Buddhism Buddhism Founder Siddharth Gautama AKA Buddha

21 Judaism Do Now (TTYN) Describe monotheistic and polytheistic Judaism is the oldest known monotheistic religion still practiced in the world today. Its fundamental teachings have been influential and are the basis for more recently developed religions such as Christianity and Islam Founder Abraham is generally recognized as the founder of  Judaism due to his covenant with God. However, Moses is also considered a founder due to his role in the liberation of the Hebrews from Egypt, and his delivery of the Ten Commandments from Mount Sinai sometime around 2000 BCE. Geography Vocab: Define Covenant Sacred Text The Tanakh – The 1st 5 books comprise the Torah

22 Judaism The World of Hebrews
The Hebrews were among the many people who occupied the Fertile Crescent. As a consequence of this contact, they slowly developed their own ideas and beliefs. One of those beliefs was the belief in one God and that God was taking a hand in their development, which was subsequently recorded in what is known as the Torah – their most sacred text. The Jews were a nomadic people who originally settled in Mesopotamia. Eventually, they would migrate to what is present-day Palestine. By 1000 B.C. the Hebrews had established the kingdom of Israel.

23 Judaism 1200 BC Moses leads the Hebrews out of Egypt (slavery) where they wander for forty years in the wilderness of the Sinai. After receiving the Ten Commandments (from God) on Mount Sinai, Moses leads his people back to "the promised land" of Canaan where the Hebrews gain their independence, reestablish Jerusalem as their capital and rebuild their temple. 930 BC The Hebrews split into the "ten Tribes" in the North controlling Israel and the the two tribes in the south controlling Judah (hence the term Jew). The division weakens the Hebrews who are later conquered by different peoples

24 Judaism Belief in one God Belief in only one God we know as?
According to the sacred scripture of the Hebrews (the Torah), God made a covenant to be the God of the Hebrews. The Hebrews were one of the nomadic groups who lived in the Fertile Crescent. According to tradition, the Hebrews became in enslaved in Egypt, and God helped them escape this slavery. According to Jewish belief, Jews are the “Chosen People because they were chosen to make the idea of one God known to the world. Around 1000 B.C., the Hebrews had developed the kingdom of Israel. They believed that God had promised them this land.

25 Judaism Vocab: Define Diaspora
66 AD the Romans conquer Canaan (now called Palestine) and destroy the temple in Jerusalem (now the Wailing Wall). Jews begin migrating throughout the Roman empire in the Jewish Diaspora, although there have been some Jews living in Palestine since the time of Moses. The Diaspora spreads Jews throughout the Mediterranean World but they maintain their cohesion as an exclusive people through a common language (Hebrew), the teachings of Jewish scholars (Rabbis), a common set of written laws (in the Talmud), and a clear set of Jewish traditions (kosher food, religious observances, circumcision, etc.). Vocab: Define Diaspora In this context, it refers to the 'exile’ that encompassed several forced expulsions of Israelites from what is now the states of Israel

26 Judaism Judaism—basic facts/history
First Monotheistic religion (1900 BCE) People of “the book” 11thLargest religion in the world Patriarch Abraham connects the major monotheistic religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Redefined conventional practices of morality and law, which provided a foundation for Western development in these areas. System became known as “ethical monotheism” –the belief in “one God who demands righteous behavior from His human creations” What are the Jewish Holy Books?  The Torah(Law/teaching) is the first five books of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh)  The most sacred text in the Jewish religious tradition. Torah scroll

27 Judaism Judaism—basic facts/history Talmud
The Talmud is viewed as an “Oral Torah” written in the early first century. It is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. What is the role of a Rabbi? They do not have specific powers in the Torah, but the Talmud gives them the authority to interpret it. He is someone who has learned the Torah, a teacher and a leader in ceremonies held in Jewish synagogues. What does “kosher” mean? Kosher foods are “fit” according to Jewish law, meaning the way in which an animal is slaughtered. Other examples include vegetables being inspected for insects, and carefully separating meat and dairy products from one another.

28 Judaism TTYN – complete the graphic organizer with important facts about Judaism Judaism Secred Text The Torah

29 Complete on page 13 in Notes Packet
Islam Complete on page 13 in Notes Packet

30 Islam Timeline and Founder Sacred Text Geography The Koran or Quran
Founded by Muhammad, he was troubled with the greed of wealthy citizens. In 610 he experienced a revelation. He heard a voice proclaiming one true god, Allah. Sacred Text The Koran or Quran Geography

31 Islam Beliefs and Tenants of Islam Five Pillars of Islam
Muhammad preached there was only ONE god, named ALLAH, and that all people were equal. Rich people should share their wealth with the poor. According to Muhammad, Allah measures the worth of a person by their devotion and good deeds The Quran (holy book) are the revelations Muhammad experienced and wrote down Quran presents basic moral values of Islam Very similar to Judaism and Christianity Lays down specific rules for daily activities Forbids eating pork, drinking or gambling Also contains rules governing marriage, divorce, family life, property and business practices Shari’ah: law of code, cannot be separated from religion in Islamic society Five Pillars of Islam Five essential duties all Muslims must fulfill Confession of faith Prayer Charity Fasting Pilgrimage to Mecca

32 Five essential duties all Muslims must fulfill
Islam “Campfire” Working within your designated groups - your task is to make an educated guess as to what the Five Pillars of Islam mean. In other words, you need to identify what each Pillar requires of a “good” Muslim. Five Pillars of Islam Five essential duties all Muslims must fulfill Confession of faith Prayer Charity Fasting Pilgrimage to Mecca

33 Five essential duties all Muslims must fulfill
Islam Pillar One All Muslims must confess their faith It affirms oneness to an all powerful God (only believe in Allah) Respect Christians and Jews Second Pillar Muslims must pray five time’s a day Must be facing Mecca, using the same set of words and motions Third Pillar giving to charity It reflects Islamic view that wealthy people should assist the poor and week Fourth Pillar Fasting or giving up food occurs in the ninth month of the Muslim calendar during Ramadan No eating or drinking sun up till sun down during this month Fifth Pillar Pilgrimage to Mecca, once in a lifetime Five Pillars of Islam Five essential duties all Muslims must fulfill Confession of faith Prayer Charity Fasting Pilgrimage to Mecca

34 Islam Spread of Islam Saw conquest as jihad
Jihad- holy struggle to bring Islam to new land The Quran permitted fair, defensive warfare Muslim warriors were assured a place in paradise if they died in battle Christians and Jews were allowed to practice their religions but must be loyal to Muslim rule and pay taxes Divided! Sunnis: 90% Believed caliph was a leader not a religious authority Any Muslim could serve in office with acceptance of the people Shiities (Shia) Believed caliph should be only descendents of Muhammad and his family Stress spirituality rather than political leaderships Islam set the guidelines for the way people lived Family Life It laid the rules for family, business and religious practices Early Islam stressed the equality of all believers before God, however men and women had distinct roles and rights Quran told Muslims the men were responsible for women A women’s social position was defined by her relationship as a wife, mother, sister or daughter Women had to complete control over her own property Education was important, all boys attended school

35 Islam Family Life Islamic Achievements
Islam set the guidelines for the way people lived It laid the rules for family, business and religious practices Early Islam stressed the equality of all believers before God, however men and women had distinct roles and rights Quran told Muslims the men were responsible for women A women’s social position was defined by her relationship as a wife, mother, sister or daughter Women had complete control over her own property Education was important, all boys attended school Islamic Achievements Used Arabic not only to promote trade but to communicate with other people During 800’s Islamic world experienced a scientific awakening Developed trigonometry Adopted Arabic concept of numerals and used them in a place value system (one used today) Accurately described solar eclipse and proved the moon affected the ocean By the 1100’s Muslims determined the basic outline of Asia, Europe and North Africa and produced the first accurate map of the eastern hemisphere Astrolabe- instrument used by sailors to determine their location by observing the position of the stars A doctor describes the circulation of blood and the functions of heart and kidney

36 Islam TTYN – complete the graphic organizer with important facts about Islam Islam Sacred Text The Quran

37 Islam Lets finish up on Page 13 of our Notes Packet
Finish up on page 13 in Notes Packet Islam Lets finish up on Page 13 of our Notes Packet

38 DBQ

39 Christianity Geography
Developed in Judea (now Israel), located in the Middle East bordering the Mediterranean Sea sometime around the year 30 CE (common era). Founder Jesus of Nazareth and his disciples who helped spread his teachings Geography Sacred Text

40 Christianity Teachings and Beliefs
Because Christianity evolved from Judaism, there are certain concepts that these two religions share. For example, both Jews and Christians subscribe to the Ten Commandments found in the Book of Exodus. In addition, prophecies of Jewish prophets contained in several books of the Old Testament stated that God would send a savior, or messiah, to the people of Israel. While Judaism clearly states that this event has not yet occurred, Christians believe that Jesus of Nazareth was the Son of God, sent to redeem the world of sin. This has led the Christian faith to proclaim that there is a Holy Trinity, formed by the Creator (Father), Redeemer (Son), and Sustainer (Holy Spirit). Christians believe that these three entities are all part of a single higher power. Christianity: The world's largest religion

41 Christianity Writing Exercises: Belief Systems
Complete on page 16 of Notes Packet Compare and contrast Christianity, Islam, and Judaism. How was religious expansion a part of wider cultural diffusion? Explain how conquerors, missionaries, and traders contributed to the spread of religions.

42 Confucianism Confucius lived in China during the Chou Dynasty (500BC), when there was mass disorder and confusion and degrading moral standards. Confucius was appalled by what appeared to be the fracturing of Chinese society. He believed that the only cure was to stress a sense of social order and mutual respect, a philosophy that later became known as Confucianism. Founder Kong Fu Zi, which was translated as Confucius by Europeans Sacred Text Significant Writings-The Analects.

43 Confucianism During the Chou Dynasty, warfare had become a very gruesome affair, whole populations were put to death. Anywhere from 60,000 to 400,000 people slaughtered Concerned primarily with restoring social stability and order What is the basis of a stable, unified, and enduring social order? A system of social and ethical philosophy “only when character is cultivated are our families regulated; only when families are regulated are states well governed.” People have to warrant the respect and power that comes with their positions in life. Power and respect are not a given, they must be earned. He believed that if everyone followed the five ideals, even just one person the effect would be wide spread. Through that person’s family, community, nation, and the world.

44 Older brother to younger brother.
Confucianism Teachings and Beliefs Confucianism teaches that there is a natural social order to society which can best be explained through the Five Relationships Ruler to ruled. Father to son. Older brother to younger brother. Husband to wife. Friend to friend In these relationships, the second role is considered subordinate to the first. It was taught that if everyone knew their place in society, then order would prevail. There are several concepts which needed to be practiced in order to achieve an ordered society Jen-Human kindness should be shown towards one another. Li-Proper etiquette should always be used, and one should strive to achieve perfect virtue. Filial Piety-One should respect their elders The institution of the family is the foundation of a well-ordered & civilized society (grounded mainly on respect of children for parents) Respect for age (experience & wisdom)

45 Confucianism Confucianism
TTYN – complete the graphic organizer with important facts about Confucianism Confucianism SacredText The Analects

46 Taoism

47 Taoism Founder Sacred Text Tao Te Ching Lao Tzu:
Was born around 640 B.C. No one is really sure about any dates or places. Sacred Text Tao Te Ching The Tao Te Ching is in effect the Taoist bible. It centers around the concept of Tao. Or the “path”

48 Taoism There are three meanings of “Tao”
Tao- The way to ultimate reality. This Tao is way to vast for a person to comprehend or fathom. Tao- The way of the universe. The norm, the rhythm, and the driving power in all of nature. Deals more with the spiritual side then the Physical side of things. Tao- The way of human life. It refers to the way that we mesh with the Tao of the universe. The Chinese term Tao can be translated into English, meaning "the way." It is a philosophy which teaches that nature has a "way" in which it moves, and that people should passively accept the "way" of nature, rather than resist it. One concept related to this is that of wu-wei, which means "not doing." This means that people should not act unnaturally by doing things, but rather should openly accept the natural way. An emphasis is placed on the link between people and nature.  Taoism teaches that this link lessened the need for rules and order, and leads one to a better understanding of the world.

49 Taoism The Taoist believe in opposites, and that things in nature have a way of working themselves out. The Taoist believe that people should be spontaneous and life their lives by someone else’s thoughts. Lao Tzu connects the human to what transcends it.

The best rulers are those that people do not even know exist. The next best are those who people love and praise. The next are those who people fear, The next are those who people despise. The best rulers seldom issue any orders. 1. What are two characteristics Lao Zi considered “best” for a ruler? __________________________________________________________________ 2. What was the purpose of this little speech? Document 1: A CONFUCIAN SAYING The Master said. “Rule over them with dignity and they will be respectful; treat them with kindness and they will do their best; raise the good and instruct those who are backward and they will be filled with happiness.” -Confucius 1. List three characteristics Confucius thought a good ruler should possess.

51 Belief Systems “Campfire” Belief Systems

52 Major Religion Review - WebQuest
Name_____________________________________ Date________ Conducted by ________________________ and ___________________________ Our assigned religion is ________________________________________________ When was this religion first founded? _____________________________________ By whom? __________________________________________________________ It is associated with these other religions: ___________________________________________________________________ It was first founded in the ____________________ region of Asia. Today, more than _________________ people practice this religion in Asia. The countries where it is most prevalent are ________________________________________________. Some fundamental beliefs of people who practice this religion are ___________________________________________________________________. Some notable dates and events in the history of this religion are When was the height of the presence of this religion in Asia? __________________. What are some factors that may have impacted its presence in Asia over the years? Directions: Work with your partner to answer the following questions.

53 Thematic Essay Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs addressing the task below, and a conclusion. Theme: Belief Systems Task: There are a variety of belief systems practiced throughout the world today. Many of these beliefs have developed massive followings, and as a result, have had a considerable amount of influence on culture in the areas where they are practiced. Choose two belief systems from your study of global history, and for each one: Identify the nation or region where it was founded. Describe two basic teachings of the belief system. Discuss how the belief system has influenced the culture of the areas in which it is currently practiced You may use any example from your study of global history. Do not use the United States in your answer. Some suggestions that you may wish to consider include: Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam Buddhism, Shinto, Animism, Confucianism, and Taoism.

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