2 Standard 7.2.6Understand the intellectual exchanges among Muslim scholars of Eurasia and Africa and the contributions Muslim scholars made to later civilizations in the areas of science, geography, mathematics, philosophy, medicine, art, and literature.
3 Background KnowledgeThe caliphate enjoyed a golden age during the early years of Abassid rule. But Muslim cultural achievements continued long after that.This section will cover the achievements of Muslim scholars and artists and their contributions to later civilizations.
4 Muslim Learning All knowledge is sacred The development of paper and creation of a paper mill in BaghdadThe development of Arabic into the language of international scholarshipLibraries and academies were established for study and exchange of ideas“House of Wisdom” in Baghdad – works from Greece, Persia, and India were collected and translated
5 Philosophy Islamic faith with the principles of Greek logic Al-Kindi and Ibn Rushd studied the works of AristotleInfluenced European philosophers
6 Medicine Islamic hospitals Doctors were skilled at surgery , including cancer and brain operations.Doctors had to pass a test and carry a license to practice medicineIbn SinaThe Canon of Medicine, which covered every known disease and treatment known at the time.
7 Science and Math Decimal system based on Hindu numerals and the zero Advances also made in geometry, algebra, and trigonometryAstronomers built observatories and measured the Earth.the astrolabe, an instrument designed to measure and plot the position of stars.created to find the Qibla, the direction that should be faced when a Muslim prays.
8 Geography and HistoryIbn Khaldun wrote a history of the world that explained the rise and fall of dynasties.Ibn Battuta, a well-known traveler, wrote about his 30 year journey across much of Asia and Africa, and describes what he saw
9 The Arts and Literature The words of the Hadith, the written record of the Sunnnah, inspired the creation of beautiful works of art and architecture, which continues its influence
10 Art and Architecturedesigns on finely woven carpets, colorful tiles, and palace walls.Arabesque, a pattern of curved shapes and lines resembling flowers or vinesMuslim architects built mosques with minarets, shrines, and palaces.The Dome of the Rock, in JerusalemThe Taj Mahal, a monument in IndiaIslam discourages the illustration of humans or animals in paintings, because it was considered a form of idol worship.
11 CalligraphyCalligraphy, artful handwriting, was the most sacred of all Muslim arts.
12 Literature and PoetryMuslim writers wrote charming stories and folk tales.Many of these tales were collected in a book called The Thousand and one Nights
13 PoetryIslamic Poetry was based on oral tradition. The Sufis, a deeply spiritual Muslim group, emphasized the importance of love and unity of all faiths.