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From Muscle to Machines!

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Presentation on theme: "From Muscle to Machines!"— Presentation transcript:

1 From Muscle to Machines!
Industrial Revolution: World History Lecture Notes

2 A New Kind of Revolution: Dawn of an Industrial Age
I. Beginnings of Industrialization A. Began in the Mid s. B. Triggered by a 2nd Agricultural Revolution 1. Construction of dikes (Dutch led the way.) 2. Utilization of livestock manure as fertilizer 3. Crop Rotation 4. Invention of the seed drill 5. Enclosure Movement

3 C. Population Multiplies => more available workers!
1. Britain’s population soared from about 5 million in to almost 9 million in 1800. 2. Population of Europe shot-up from roughly 120 million to 180 million during the same time! 3. Unprecedented growth a. reduced risk of death from famine due to the new food surplus b. improved nutrition resulted in a healthier population c. decreased death rate from disease 1.) better hygiene and sanitation 2.) improved medical care

4 4. Created a larger work force – more workers available!

5 D. New Technological Triggers
1. An Energy Revolution a. Steam engine: powered by coal b. Steam engine: key power source 1.) locomotives 2.) steamships 2. Quality of Iron Improves a. discovery/ utilization of smelting iron b. used in construction of machines, steam engines, bridges, and railroads

6 II. Britain Leads the Way!
A. Plentiful Natural Resources 1. Natural Ports 2. Navigable Rivers A. water power (water wheels, steam power) B. canal construction feasible

7 3. Rich coal supply 4. Vast supplies of iron


9 2. Entrepreneurial Skills / Spirit
B. Labor Resources 1. Skilled mechanics 2. Entrepreneurial Skills / Spirit

10 C. The Effects of Demand & Capital
1. Growth of Demand a. more than just “wanting something” b. being able and willing to buy something. c. desire for new, practical inventions d. boosted by a higher population and willing workforce

11 2. Capital a. Money used to invest in enterprises – business organizations b. Needed for shipbuilding, mining, railroads, and factories

12 D. Government 1. Stability 2. Strong navy that protected it empire, shipping, and oversees trade.

13 E. Textile Industry Thrives
1. Britain’s Textile industry 2. Inventions speed production – faster, spinning, and weaving machines a. 1764: Spinning Jenny spun many threads at the same time b. Presented the unique challenge to produce enough cotton to keep up with England. c. Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin that separated seeds from cotton quickly in 1793 d. Cotton production increased exponentially!

14 3. Factories emerge! a. Because new machines were too large and expensive to be operated in homes, manufacturers built long sheds to house the machines. b. Initially located near rapidly moving streams for water power, they eventually were powered by stream engines.

15 F. The Transportation Revolution
1. Turnpikes built. 2. Canals boom! 3. Steam locomotives appear and go global! a. Beginning in the 1830s, canals lost their appeal as steam locomotives made railroads the new preferred form of transportation. b. Railroads did not have to follow the course of a river so tracks could go places where rivers could not!

16 d. By 1870, rail lines crisscrossed Britain, Europe, and North America.

17 All aboard!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! c. World’s first major rail line, from Liverpool to Manchester, opened in 1830; d.By 1870, rail lines crisscrossed Britain, Europe, and North America!

18 All that glitters isn’t gold!
Be careful what you wish for! Will the Industrial Revolution prove to be a blessing or a curse? Will the advantages outweigh the disadvantages? The excitement of a new era, the blessings of technology abound and are undeniable…. OR are they?

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