Presentation on theme: "Industrial Revolution"— Presentation transcript:
1 Industrial Revolution Britain Leads the WayChapter 5, Section 2
2 Focus QuestionWhat key factors allowed Britain to lead the way in the Industrial Revolution?
3 Why did Britain become the First Country to Industrialize? Plentiful natural resourcesPorts/natural harbors to ship goods worldwideRivers (water for power)Canals (transport trade)Britain surrounded by seaAbundant coal suppliesSupplies of iron to build machines
4 British Workforce Skilled mechanics and ready workforce Population explosion led to high demand for goodsAvailable moneyOverseas trade contributed to prosperous British economy
5 Other factors contributed to the rise of industries in Great Britain
6 CapitalPlenty capital (money) to loan and invest in new factories, mines, railroads, and enterprises (a business organization)
7 British ParliamentStable government and political system in Britain that supported economic growthOther countries were experiencing revolutions that destabilized the government
8 Powerful British NavyStrong navy to protect British trade, her empire, and overseas trade“The sun never set on the British empire”
9 EntrepreneursNew entrepreneurs (assume financial risks of starting new business) emerged
10 Interactive Geography Map Click onType mzp-1921 in the web code box and click “go”On the next page click “continue”Click on the ► at the bottom of the page to start the video. Turn on the volume on your speakers for the sound.
11 Textile IndustryIndustrial Revolution began in British textile (cloth) industryBritish merchants developed a cotton cloth industry called the putting-out systemIn the putting-out system, the raw cotton was given to peasant familiesFamilies spun the cotton into thread in their cottages and then wove the thread into home-made clothBut production was really s-l-o-w under the putting-out system
13 Making Cloth By Hand Was Time-Consuming and Slow New Inventions were Needed to Speed Cloth Production
14 New Inventions Faster inventions increased speed of cloth production Flying Shuttle (John Kay)Spinning Jenny – (James Hargreaves)Water Frame – 1769 – Richard Arkwright – spinning machine powered by waterCotton Gin – Eli Whitney – 1793 – separate seeds from raw cotton at fast rate – cotton production increasedCotton Gin
16 Spinning Jenny by James Hargreaves (1764) By turning a single wheel, the operator could now spin eight threads at once. Clothing could be produced faster.
17 Water Frame by Richard Arkwright (1769) The water frame was powered by water. The disadvantage was that the machine had to be next to a water source.
18 Cotton Gin – Eli Whitney (1793) Eli Whitney's Cotton Gin : In 1794, Eli Whitney received a patent for his cotton gin, which separated cotton fibers from seeds. The machine's success led to both massive growth in American cotton production and a substantial increase in the importation of slave labor.
19 Factories The new machines destroyed the putting out system The machines were too large to operate in a cottage settingManufacturers built factories along rivers/streams to use water as power source – rivers polluted with factory wasteCloth spinners/weavers operated the large machines in factoriesWorkers manufactured more products using machines than by hand → the speed of cloth manufacturing increased
20 Transportation Problems More goods were being producedBut transportation methods were slow and expensiveA horse and cart could only carry so many goods from one destination to anotherThe time to get the goods from the factory to the target destination was too long
21 Transportation Revolution Need to develop faster and cheaper means to transport the machine-produced productsTurnpikes, canals, bridges, and harbors were constructedCanals cut the shipping time and thus the price of coalDevelopment of steam locomotive caused shipping by canal to diminish – railroads could now travel where a canal was not located
22 Railroads could travel where canals were not located Canals vs. RailroadsRailroads could travel where canals were not located
23 Steam LocomotiveSteam powered locomotive – pioneered by George StephensonProducts could be shipped quickly and cheaply over landFirst major rail line – Liverpool to Manchester – opened in 1830Railroad construction boomed in Britain and Europe
26 Chain Reaction: Effects of Industrial Revolution Machines produced goods faster than by handPrices fellLower prices made goods more affordable to more peopleMore consumers demanded the cheaper goodsFactories produced more goods and hired more workers to meet the demandNew wave of economic and social changes occurred – some were good changes – some were bad changes
27 Powerpoint Questions1. What is the name of the cloth industry where families manufactured the cloth in their cottages?2. Who invented the cotton gin? What year?3. The world’s first major rail line stretched from ___ to ___.4. An entrepreneur is a type of (circle one)a. scientistb. inventorc. business persond. personal secretary
28 Powerpoint Questions5. The first area to go through major industrialization was ______.a. banking b. railroadsc. coal mining d. textile production6. Which was a geographic advantage for England in the Industrial Revolution?a. coastal mountains b. moderate climatec. natural harbors d. year-round agriculture
29 Powerpoint Questions7. The two essential natural resources for industrialization werea. coal and iron. b. gold and silver.c. water and trees. d. steel and oil.
30 Powerpoint Questions8. Where were the earliest textile factories located in England?a. near the harbors b. on farmsc. in the middle of large cities d. on the banks of rivers9. England benefitted from an excellent transportation system that allowed goods to be transported to and from factories. These included --a. carts, trains, and airplanes b. trains, rivers, and canalsc. ships, cars, and trains d. horses, trains, and turnpikes