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An introduction to the subjunctive MOOD

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1 An introduction to the subjunctive MOOD
El subjuntivo An introduction to the subjunctive MOOD

2 TENSE VS. MOOD Verbs are classified by tense and mood.
Tense shows the time of action (present, past, etc.) Mood shows the attitude of the speaker toward the action or the situation. Mood tenses are indicative, subjunctive (subj.), and imperative.

3 The Basics #1 The subj. is not used often in English.
Indicative Subjunctive You are early It’s necessary that you be early He speaks Spanish I insist that he speak Spanish She eats well We prefer that she eat well.

4 The Basics #2 The subj. occurs in dependent clauses that are joined to the independent (main) clause by que (that). ejemplo: Es preciso que estés temprano. It is necessary that you be early.

5 The Basics #3 The indicative mood is objective and is used to speak about facts and certainties. The subjunctive mood is subjective and is used to express emotions, doubt, feelings, hopes, wishes, requests, suggestions, preferences, persuasions, etc. in the main clause.

6 Examples Indicative Subjunctive Habla español.
Estoy Feliz de que hable español. Come mucho. Duda que coma mucho. No vive bien. Siento que no viva bien. Son profesores. Espero que sean profesores.

7 The Basics #4 Common misconception:
Que is always followed by the subjunctive. Not true! Only true when the main clause expresses emotion, hope, denial, etc. Ejemplo: indicative subjunctive Sé que está aquí Espero que esté aquí I know that she is here I hope that she is here.

8 Formation and conjugation
Regular verbs: The rule of thumb is add the opposite! -ar verbs use –er endings Hablar = hable, hables, hable, hablemos, hablen -er/-ir verbs use –ar endings Comer = coma, comas, coma, comamos, coman Vivir = viva, vivas, viva, vivamos, vivan

9 Formation Stem-changing verbs
-ar & -er verbs have the same stem change. -ir verbs have the same stem change except the nosotros/vosotros forms change as well. e i pedir = pidamos o u dormir = durmamos

10 Formation Irregular verbs:
Drop the –o in the yo form and add the opposite ending. Hacer: haga, hagas … Decir: diga, digas … Poner: ponga, pongas … Venir: venga, vengas … Tener: tenga, tengas … Salir: salga, salgas … Caer: caiga, caigas … Traer: traiga, traigas … Huir: huya, huyas … Ver: vea, veas … Oír: oiga, oigas … ser: sea, seas … Ir: vaya, vayas … haber: haya, hayas … Dar*: dé, des, dé … estar*: esté, estés … Saber: sepa, sepas … *accents are important!

11 Remember W.E.I.R.D.O W = wishing, wanting, will (querer, esperar, desear) E = emotions (any emotions) I = imperative, impersonal (es …que…) R = request, reaction D = doubt, denial (dudar, negar, no creer) O = Ojalá (I hope)

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