EL SUBJUNTIVO VS. EL INDICATIVO
What is the subjunctive
The subjunctive is a mood, it is used to express a wish, hope, uncertainty or other similar attitudes toward a fact or an idea. Because it stresses the subject’s feelings about the fact or idea, it is usually subjective about them. Examples: I wish he were here. subject’s wish subjunctive The teacher insisted that the homework be neat Subject’s wish subjunctive
What is meant by mood? In English…..
MOOD is the grammatical term for a category of a verb used to indicate the attitude of a speaker toward what he or she is saying Verbs can be divided into 3 moods. The indicative mood (stated the action of a verb, facts) Robert studies Spanish (present) Anita was here (past) They will arrive tomorrow (future) The Imperative mood (commands) Robert study Spanish now! Anita, be home on time! The subjunctive mood (expresses attitudes) The school requires that students study Spanish. I wish Anita were here. The teacher recommends that he do his homework.
In English… The subjunctive verb is difficult to recognize because it is spelled like other tenses of the verb: the dictionary form and the simple past tense. It is also not used as frequently. Indicative subjunctive He reads a lot. The course requires that he read a lot. Indicative present to read I am in Detroit right now. I wish I were in Madrid. Indicative present to be. Subjunctive (same as dictionary form) Subjunctive (same as the past tense)
En español… The subjunctive is used frequently, unfortunately, English usage will rarely help you decide where or how to use it in Spanish. So……. we’ll brainstorm after to see how we can remember the subjunctive.
So… when do we use it? The verb of wishing or wanting…
Quiero que Uds. estudien mucho. Querer (to want) indicative I want you to study a lot. Word for word: I want that you study a lot. estudiar (to study) subjunctive OJO: It is not the verb or the expression itself that is put in the subjunctive; it is the verb that follows.
An expression of doubt or uncertainty.
Dudo que Roberto llegue hoy. Dudar (to doubt) indicative I doubt that Robert will arrive today. Word-for-word: I doubt that Robert arrives today. llegar (to arrive) subjunctive
An impersonal expression (ES + adjective)
Es possible que compremos un coche nuevo. It is possible that we will buy a new car. word for word: It is possible that we buy a new car. Comprar (to buy) subjuntivo Es + adjective indicative
A verb of advice or command
Te aconsejo que comas muchos vegetales. I advise you to eat a lot of vegetables. word-for-word: I advise that you eat a lot of vegetables. Aconsejar (to advise) indicative Comer (to eat) subjunctive
An expression of emotion
Siento que Julio esté enfermo. I am sorry that Julio is sick. Sentir (to feel) indicative estar (to be) subjunctive OJO: The tense of an English verb will rarely tell you if it should use the subjunctive in Spanish. As you have just seen with all of these examples, a variety of English verb forms can take the subjunctive in Spanish.
Do you know what tenses the examples are in? (in English)
I want you to study a lot. Quiero que Uds. estudien mucho. I advise you to eat a lot. Te aconsejo que comas muchos vegetales. I doubt that Roberto will arrive today. Dudo que Roberto llegue hoy. It is possible that we will buy a new car. Es posible que compremos un coche nuevo. I’m sorry that Julio is sick. Siento que Julio esté enfermo. INFINITIVE FUTURE PRESENT
Indicative OR subjunctive mood???
Review Indicative OR subjunctive mood??? John wants Mary to go out with him. I’m happy that you got a job. My mother says that Tom is a good student. The doctor suggests that you take two asprins. It’s important for you to learn Spanish. We doubt that he won the lottery. I know that John lives in that house. subjunctive subjunctive indicative subj subjunctive subjunctive indicative
The Subjunctive – Present Subjunctive
REGULAR VERBS The present subjunctive is formed by dropping the o of the first-person singular present indicative and adding the opposite vowel endings: e for ar verbs and a for ir/er verbs. -ar -er -ir Hablar Comer Vivir yo hable coma viva tύ hables comas vivas él/ella/usted hable coma viva nosotros hablemos comamos vivamos vosotros habléis comáis viváis ellos/ellas/ustedes hablen coman vivan
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