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Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Micronutrients Fluid and Electrolytes Balance. Chapter 8, 9,10 BIOL1400 Dr. Mohamad H. Termos.

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Presentation on theme: "Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Micronutrients Fluid and Electrolytes Balance. Chapter 8, 9,10 BIOL1400 Dr. Mohamad H. Termos."— Presentation transcript:

1 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Micronutrients Fluid and Electrolytes Balance.
Chapter 8, 9,10 BIOL1400 Dr. Mohamad H. Termos

2 Vitamins Essential organic (carbon containing) substances
Needed in small amounts For normal function, growth and maintenance They are not energy yielding molecules

3 Vitamins Vitamins can be classified into;
1- Water soluble vitamins: such as vitamin C and the B vitamins. 2- Fat soluble vitamins: such as vitamins A, D, E and K.

4 Vitamins Vitamins are needed in the food because many of them can't be synthesized in the human body. Exceptions include: - Vitamin A can be synthesized from plant pigments - Vitamin D can be synthesized by skin in the presence of sunlight - Vitamin K can be synthesized by gut bacteria to some extent

5 Vitamin Toxicity Fat-soluble vitamins can accumulate in the body and have toxic effects Toxicities of vitamin A are observed most frequently, with consumption as little as 3x human needs Vitamin E, Niacin, vitamin B-6, and vitamin C can become toxic when times the amount needed is consumed, usually from supplementation

6 The fat-soluble vitamins – A, D, E, and K
Absorption of fat soluble vitamins Absorbed with dietary fat Special carriers in the bloodstream Storage in the liver and adipose tissue 40% to 90% are absorbed when fat absorption is efficient Diseases affecting fat absorption, some medications and laxatives can negatively affect fat soluble vitamin absorption

7 Vitamin A Vitamin A is found in foods in different forms
- Retinoids are preformed vitamin A only found in animal foods - Plants contain pigments called carotenoids (provitamin A) which can be turned into vitamin A

8 Vitamin A: Functions Vision
- Night vision: retinal (form of vit. A) allows eyes to adjust from bright to dim light. - Xeropthalmia: dry eye, cells of cornea lose ability to produce mucus which can eventually lead to blindness - Deficiency is second leading cause of blindness worldwide Cataracts: Pathology Opacity of the lens or capsule of the eye, causing impairment of vision or blindness.

9 Vision (cont.) - Macular degeneration: - Macula of eye contains carotenoids. - High consumption of these carotenoids decreases risk of macular degeneration - Carotenoids may also decrease risk of cataracts

10 Vitamin A- functions (cont.)
- Health of other cells - Growth, development, and reproduction - Cardiovascular disease prevention Carotenoids are antioxidants 5 fruits and veggies a day can decrease risk Cancer prevention Vitamin A analogs used for acne treatment. Lycopene: a red crystalline substance, C40H56, that is the main pigment of certain fruits, as the tomato and paprika, and is a precursor to carotene in plant biosynthesis.

11 Vitamin A sources and needs
- Preformed: Liver, fish, fortified milk, yogurt and eggs - Provitamin A: Dark green and orange vegetables and fruits also tomatoes - Consuming high amounts of marine oils can lead to toxicity - RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance): 700 to 900 micrograms - Daily Value is 1000 micrograms

12 Vitamin A sources and needs
Upper level of vitamin A (The highest tolerable level) Upper level is 3000 micrograms of preformed vitamin A per day for adult. Can lead to fetal malformations, spontaneous abortions, and liver toxicity Carotenoids are not toxic

13 Vitamin D - Also considered a hormone
- Skin cells can synthesize Vit D using sunlight, 90% comes from sun - Experts recommend exposing hands, face and arms to the sun for 5-10 minutes, times per week

14 Vitamin D: Functions Regulates calcium and bone metabolism
- Regulates calcium and phosphorus absorption - Regulates deposition of calcium and phosphorus in bone

15 Vitamin-D Deficiency Rickets
Vit. D deficiency in children causes bowed legs Osteomalacia - Bones become porous and weak and break easily - Aging decreases Vit D production in skin by about 70%

16 Vitamin D Dietary sources and needs
- Mostly in fortified milk and yogurt, fatty fish and fortified cereals - Also found in eggs and butter. - AI (Adequate Intake): 5 micrograms per day, higher for older adults

17 Vitamin D: Upper Level - 50 micrograms per day
- Causes over-absorption of calcium and calcium deposits in kidneys - Weakness, loss of appetite, diarrhea, vomiting, and increased urine also symptoms - Not from excessive sun exposure

18 Vitamin E - Antioxidant - Resides in cell membranes
- Stops free-radicals from damaging components of the cell membranes and DNA - Aids in the formation of red blood - Helps maintain nervous tissue and immune function

19 Vitamin E: Food sources and needs
- Plant oils, cereals, eggs, and nuts - Animal fat has almost no Vit E - Adequate intake = 15 milligram per day

20 Vitamin E - Upper level is 1000 mg of supplemental alpha tocopherol (most common form of Vit. E) - Can antagonize vitamin K role in blood clotting leading to bleeding.

21 Vitamin K Bacterial synthesis in intestines supplies about 10% of our needs Functions: - Blood clotting - Also helps in calcium binding to bones, muscles, and kidneys

22 Vitamin K: Food sources and RDA
- Liver, soybeans and canola oils - Broccoli, peas and green beans - DV is 80 micrograms

23 Water-soluble vitamins and choline
- Readily excreted from the body - Very little stored - Includes the B vitamins and C - Choline is a related nutrient but is not classified as a vitamin.

24 Thiamin - B1 Functions to release energy from carbohydrates
Deficiency may lead to enlarged heart and sometimes severe edema

25 Thiamin - B1: Food sources and needs
- Meats, milk, fish, and cereals. - Daily Value:1.5 milligrams. Toxicity unlikely as it is readily excreted No upper limit

26 Riboflavin - B2 Functions - Antioxidant
- Releases energy from carbohydrates Food sources and RDA Milk, milk products, enriched grains, meat, various greens and eggs DV is 1.7 milligrams. No upper limit Deficiency - Inflammation and cracking of tongue and mouth - Eye disorders, sun sensitivity and confusion

27 Niacin - B3 - Functions in fat metabolism Deficiency:
- Pellagra (means rough or painful skin) - Dermatitis and diarrhea Death can occur Food sources and needs - Poultry, beef, tuna/fish, asparagus, peanuts - Also coffee and tea DV is 20 mg and UL is 35 mg In dementia, affected areas in cognition may be memory, attention, language, and problem solving. Exceeding the upper limit: Headache, itching, and increased blood flow to the skin (flushing). Sometimes large amounts are used under a doctor's supervision to treat cardiovascular disease

28 Biotin Functions Deficiency Acts in fat and carbohydrate metabolism
Promotes synthesis of glucose, fatty acids, and DNA Breaks down certain amino acids Deficiency Scaly inflammation of the skin Changes in tongue and lips Decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting Anemia, depression, muscle pain and weakness Poor growth

29 Biotin Food sources and needs Cauliflower, Egg yolks, Peanuts, Cheese
Intestinal bacteria synthesize some biotin making deficiency unlikely Avidin in raw egg whites binds biotin and inhibits its absorption DV is 300 micrograms No UL

30 Pyridoxine or Vitamin B6
Functions - Carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism - Synthesis of hemoglobin - Maintain healthy brain function. Deficiency symptoms - Depression, vomiting, skin disorders, nerve irritation, decreased immune response. Deficiency occur in alcoholism Food sources and needs - Meat, fish, and poultry - Cereals, potatoes, and milk Bananas, broccoli, and spinach Need: 2 mg, UL: 100mg/day Upper Level is 100 milligrams/day - Irreversible nerve damage if 2-6 grams per day for 2+ months

31 Folate Functions - DNA synthesis - Amino acid metabolism Deficiency
- Affects red blood cell division because DNA cannot form, - Maternal deficiency in first 28 days of pregnancy linked to neural tube defects - All women of childbearing years should take 400mcg of synthetic folate per day

32 Folate Food sources and needs Green leafy vegetables, organ meats
Vegetables, dried beans and orange juice Cereals, milk and bread Destroyed by heat and processing DV: 400 micrograms Pregnant women need 600 mcg Upper Limit: 1 milligram

33 Vitamin B12 Characteristics
- Synthesized by bacteria, fungus, and other lower organisms Functions - Folate metabolism - Maintains brain and spinal cord - Forms red blood cells Food sources and needs - Animal foods - meat, poultry, seafood, eggs, milk, and milk products - RDA: 2.4 micrograms per day - Toxicity unknown, no UL

34 Vitamin C Characteristics - Found in all living tissues
- Most animals can synthesize from glucose - Vitamin C deficiency leads to scurvy: weakness, poor wound healing, bone pain, fractures, bleeding gums, diarrhea, and bleeding. Absorption and metabolism - Absorbed in small intestines, 70-90% is absorbed - Percent absorbed decreases with increased dosage - High intakes can cause diarrhea

35 Vitamin C Functions - Collagen synthesis
Highly concentrated in connective tissue, bones, teeth, tendons, and blood vessels Wound healing - Antioxidant (water-soluble) Reduce formation of cancer-causing molecules - Enhanced iron absorption - Immune system Vitamin C in large quantities is not shown to prevent colds May reduce symptoms

36 Vitamin C Food sources and needs
Almost exclusively in fruits and vegetables Lost in processing and cooking DV 60 milligrams Smokers need an extra 35 milligrams per day Risk of deficiency Alcoholism Elderly men Upper Level: 2 grams per day Inflammation of the stomach Diarrhea

37 Choline - Now called an essential nutrient but not a vitamin
- Functions Precursor to acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter associated with attention, learning, and memory; muscle control; and other functions - Deficiency is linked to liver damage - Food sources and needs Widely distributed in foods Milk, liver, and peanuts Adequate Intake: 425 to 550 milligrams per day Upper Level: 3.5 grams per day Fishy body odor Low blood pressure

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