Presentation on theme: "Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Micronutrients Fluid and Electrolytes Balance. Chapter 8, 9,10 BIOL1400 Dr. Mohamad H. Termos."— Presentation transcript:
1 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Micronutrients Fluid and Electrolytes Balance. Chapter 8, 9,10BIOL1400Dr. Mohamad H. Termos
2 Vitamins Essential organic (carbon containing) substances Needed in small amountsFor normal function, growth and maintenanceThey are not energy yielding molecules
3 Vitamins Vitamins can be classified into; 1- Water soluble vitamins: such as vitamin C and the B vitamins.2- Fat soluble vitamins: such as vitamins A, D, E and K.
4 VitaminsVitamins are needed in the food because many of them can't be synthesized in the human body.Exceptions include:- Vitamin A can be synthesized from plant pigments- Vitamin D can be synthesized by skin in the presence of sunlight- Vitamin K can be synthesized by gut bacteria to some extent
5 Vitamin ToxicityFat-soluble vitamins can accumulate in the body and have toxic effectsToxicities of vitamin A are observed most frequently, with consumption as little as 3x human needsVitamin E, Niacin, vitamin B-6, and vitamin C can become toxic when times the amount needed is consumed, usually from supplementation
6 The fat-soluble vitamins – A, D, E, and K Absorption of fat soluble vitaminsAbsorbed with dietary fatSpecial carriers in the bloodstreamStorage in the liver and adipose tissue40% to 90% are absorbed when fat absorption is efficientDiseases affecting fat absorption, some medications and laxatives can negatively affect fat soluble vitamin absorption
7 Vitamin A Vitamin A is found in foods in different forms - Retinoids are preformed vitamin A only found in animal foods- Plants contain pigments called carotenoids (provitamin A) which can be turned into vitamin A
8 Vitamin A: Functions Vision - Night vision: retinal (form of vit. A) allows eyes to adjust from bright to dim light.- Xeropthalmia: dry eye, cells of cornea lose ability to produce mucus which can eventually lead to blindness- Deficiency is second leading cause of blindness worldwideCataracts: Pathology Opacity of the lens or capsule of the eye, causing impairment of vision or blindness.
9 Vision (cont.)- Macular degeneration:- Macula of eye contains carotenoids.- High consumption of these carotenoids decreases risk of macular degeneration- Carotenoids may also decrease risk of cataracts
10 Vitamin A- functions (cont.) - Health of other cells- Growth, development, and reproduction- Cardiovascular disease preventionCarotenoids are antioxidants5 fruits and veggies a day can decrease riskCancer preventionVitamin A analogs used for acne treatment.Lycopene: a red crystalline substance, C40H56, that is the main pigment of certain fruits, as the tomato and paprika, and is a precursor to carotene in plant biosynthesis.
11 Vitamin A sources and needs - Preformed: Liver, fish, fortified milk, yogurt and eggs- Provitamin A: Dark green and orange vegetables and fruits also tomatoes- Consuming high amounts of marine oils can lead to toxicity- RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance): 700 to 900 micrograms- Daily Value is 1000 micrograms
12 Vitamin A sources and needs Upper level of vitamin A (The highest tolerable level)Upper level is 3000 micrograms of preformed vitamin A per day for adult.Can lead to fetal malformations, spontaneous abortions, and liver toxicityCarotenoids are not toxic
13 Vitamin D - Also considered a hormone - Skin cells can synthesize Vit D using sunlight, 90% comes from sun- Experts recommend exposing hands, face and arms to the sun for 5-10 minutes, times per week
14 Vitamin D: Functions Regulates calcium and bone metabolism - Regulates calcium and phosphorus absorption- Regulates deposition of calcium and phosphorus in bone
15 Vitamin-D Deficiency Rickets Vit. D deficiency in children causes bowed legsOsteomalacia- Bones become porous and weak and break easily- Aging decreases Vit D production in skin by about 70%
16 Vitamin D Dietary sources and needs - Mostly in fortified milk and yogurt, fatty fish and fortified cereals- Also found in eggs and butter.- AI (Adequate Intake): 5 micrograms per day, higher for older adults
17 Vitamin D: Upper Level - 50 micrograms per day - Causes over-absorption of calcium and calcium deposits in kidneys- Weakness, loss of appetite, diarrhea, vomiting, and increased urine also symptoms- Not from excessive sun exposure
18 Vitamin E - Antioxidant - Resides in cell membranes - Stops free-radicals from damaging components of the cell membranes and DNA- Aids in the formation of red blood- Helps maintain nervous tissue and immune function
19 Vitamin E: Food sources and needs - Plant oils, cereals, eggs, and nuts- Animal fat has almost no Vit E- Adequate intake = 15 milligram per day
20 Vitamin E- Upper level is 1000 mg of supplemental alpha tocopherol (most common form of Vit. E)- Can antagonize vitamin K role in blood clotting leading to bleeding.
21 Vitamin KBacterial synthesis in intestines supplies about 10% of our needsFunctions:- Blood clotting- Also helps in calcium binding to bones, muscles, and kidneys
22 Vitamin K: Food sources and RDA - Liver, soybeans and canola oils- Broccoli, peas and green beans- DV is 80 micrograms
23 Water-soluble vitamins and choline - Readily excreted from the body- Very little stored- Includes the B vitamins and C- Choline is a related nutrient but is not classified as a vitamin.
24 Thiamin - B1 Functions to release energy from carbohydrates Deficiency may lead to enlarged heart and sometimes severe edema
25 Thiamin - B1: Food sources and needs - Meats, milk, fish, and cereals.- Daily Value:1.5 milligrams.Toxicity unlikely as it is readily excretedNo upper limit
26 Riboflavin - B2 Functions - Antioxidant - Releases energy from carbohydratesFood sources and RDAMilk, milk products, enriched grains, meat, various greens and eggsDV is 1.7 milligrams.No upper limitDeficiency- Inflammation and cracking of tongue and mouth- Eye disorders, sun sensitivity and confusion
27 Niacin - B3 - Functions in fat metabolism Deficiency: - Pellagra (means rough or painful skin)- Dermatitis and diarrheaDeath can occurFood sources and needs- Poultry, beef, tuna/fish, asparagus, peanuts- Also coffee and teaDV is 20 mg and UL is 35 mgIn dementia, affected areas in cognition may be memory, attention, language, and problem solving. Exceeding the upper limit: Headache, itching, and increased blood flow to the skin (flushing). Sometimes large amounts are used under a doctor's supervision to treat cardiovascular disease
28 Biotin Functions Deficiency Acts in fat and carbohydrate metabolism Promotes synthesis of glucose, fatty acids, and DNABreaks down certain amino acidsDeficiencyScaly inflammation of the skinChanges in tongue and lipsDecreased appetite, nausea, vomitingAnemia, depression, muscle pain and weaknessPoor growth
29 Biotin Food sources and needs Cauliflower, Egg yolks, Peanuts, Cheese Intestinal bacteria synthesize some biotin making deficiency unlikelyAvidin in raw egg whites binds biotin and inhibits its absorptionDV is 300 microgramsNo UL
30 Pyridoxine or Vitamin B6 Functions- Carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism- Synthesis of hemoglobin- Maintain healthy brain function.Deficiency symptoms- Depression, vomiting, skin disorders, nerve irritation, decreased immune response. Deficiency occur in alcoholismFood sources and needs- Meat, fish, and poultry- Cereals, potatoes, and milkBananas, broccoli, and spinachNeed: 2 mg, UL: 100mg/dayUpper Level is 100 milligrams/day- Irreversible nerve damage if 2-6 grams per day for 2+ months
31 Folate Functions - DNA synthesis - Amino acid metabolism Deficiency - Affects red blood cell division because DNA cannot form,- Maternal deficiency in first 28 days of pregnancy linked to neural tube defects- All women of childbearing years should take 400mcg of synthetic folate per day
32 Folate Food sources and needs Green leafy vegetables, organ meats Vegetables, dried beans and orange juiceCereals, milk and breadDestroyed by heat and processingDV: 400 microgramsPregnant women need 600 mcgUpper Limit: 1 milligram
33 Vitamin B12 Characteristics - Synthesized by bacteria, fungus, and other lower organismsFunctions- Folate metabolism- Maintains brain and spinal cord- Forms red blood cellsFood sources and needs- Animal foods - meat, poultry, seafood, eggs, milk, and milk products- RDA: 2.4 micrograms per day- Toxicity unknown, no UL
34 Vitamin C Characteristics - Found in all living tissues - Most animals can synthesize from glucose- Vitamin C deficiency leads to scurvy: weakness, poor wound healing, bone pain, fractures, bleeding gums, diarrhea, and bleeding.Absorption and metabolism- Absorbed in small intestines, 70-90% is absorbed- Percent absorbed decreases with increased dosage- High intakes can cause diarrhea
35 Vitamin C Functions - Collagen synthesis Highly concentrated in connective tissue, bones, teeth, tendons, and blood vesselsWound healing- Antioxidant (water-soluble)Reduce formation of cancer-causing molecules- Enhanced iron absorption- Immune systemVitamin C in large quantities is not shown to prevent coldsMay reduce symptoms
36 Vitamin C Food sources and needs Almost exclusively in fruits and vegetablesLost in processing and cookingDV 60 milligramsSmokers need an extra 35 milligrams per dayRisk of deficiencyAlcoholismElderly menUpper Level: 2 grams per dayInflammation of the stomachDiarrhea
37 Choline - Now called an essential nutrient but not a vitamin - FunctionsPrecursor to acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter associated with attention, learning, and memory; muscle control; and other functions- Deficiency is linked to liver damage- Food sources and needsWidely distributed in foodsMilk, liver, and peanutsAdequate Intake: 425 to 550 milligrams per dayUpper Level: 3.5 grams per dayFishy body odorLow blood pressure