Ecology The study of interactions among organisms (biotic factors) and their environment (abiotic factors)
Energy Cycling All organisms need energy in order to survive. This energy (`10%) passes from one organism to another in a FOOD CHAIN. Each organism in a food chain represents a feeding step or TROPHIC LEVEL.
Example of a Food Chain 10% Rule: Only 10% of energy is passed on. The remaining energy is used for metabolism, movement, lost as heat or lost during incomplete digestion 1 st trophic level 2 nd trophic level 3 rd trophic level 4 th trophic level 5 th trophic level
Producers (autotrophs) Organisms use the sun’s energy to make their own food through photosynthesis. Form the base of the food chain. Ex: Cypress Trees Algae
Consumers (heterotrophs) These organisms must feed on other organisms to get nourishment. Ex: Wading birds feed on bottom-dwelling organisms.
Types of Heterotrophs Carnivores – Eat only other animals Omnivores – Eat other animals and plants Herbivores – Eat only plants Scavengers – Feed on dead animals Decomposers – Aide in the breakdown of dead organisms Detritivores– Feed on dead or decaying matter
Food Web Arrows show direction of ENERGY movement