2 ProducersProducers/autotrophs – organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce it’s own foodEx: plantsPhotosynthesizing bacteriaPhotosynthesis – process by which autotrophs use light energy to power reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydratesChemosynthesis – using chemical energy to produce carbohydrates
3 ConsumersConsumer/Heterotrophs – organisms that rely on other organisms for their source of energyTypes of consumers:Herbivore – eat plantsCarnivore – eat meatOmnivore – eats plants and meatDetritivores – feed on plant and animal remainsDecomposers – break down organic matter
4 Feeding Relationships Sun/Inorganic Compounds → Autotrophs → HeterotrophsFood Chains – series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eatenEx: grass → grasshopper → bird → coyote → bear“Arrow goes where the food flows”Ex: figure 3-7 – page 69
5 Cont. Feeding Relationships Each step of the food chain is known as a trophic levelProducers make up the first trophic levelConsumers make up the 2nd, 3rd, and higher trophic levelsEach consumer depends on the trophic level below it for energy.Food Web – network of interactions formed by feeding relationships among organisms in an ecosystem. Links all the food chains together.
6 Ecological PyramidsEcological Pyramid – diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained in each trophic level of a food chain or web.
7 Ecological Pyramids 3 types Energy Pyramid – Shows the relative amount of energy available at each trophic level10 % energy carry-over between each trophic levelBiomass Pyramid – shows the total amount of living organic matter within a trophic levelPyramid of Numbers – Shows the number of individual organisms at each trophic level