2 ecology ecosystem abiotic biotic population habitatproducer photosynthesis autotrophconsumer cellular respiration heterotrophprimary consumer secondary consumertertiary consumer carnivore herbivoreomnivore detritivore scavengerdecomposer trophic level food chainfood web pyramid of energyPyramid of biomass
3 Abiotic (non-living) - physical environment Ecology - study of the interactions of organisms with each other and their environment.Scientists called ecologists study small areas of Earth called ecosystems.An Ecosystem is made of 2 groups of things:Abiotic (non-living) - physical environment(water, sunlight, oxygen, soil, nutrients and temperature)Biotic (living) - living organisms(plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria)
4 Ecosystems contain populations of many different organisms. Each population has a place where it lives – called its habitat.
5 Energy Flow ecosystem matter cycle input energy (solar energy) energy lost(heat energy)ecosystem
6 Organisms that "make" food like this are also called Autotrophs. All living things require energy to live - the source of that energy is the sun.Producers (plants) use the sun’s energy to make organic compounds (food), this process is called photosynthesis:CO H2O O2sugarC6H12O6Organisms that "make" food like this are also called Autotrophs.
7 Consumers cannot make food, they must eat. Breaking down food to release the stored energy for use is called cellular respiration:C6H12O6+ O CO H2OsugarOrganisms that use cellular respiration to get energy are called Heterotrophs.
9 Secondary consumers feed on primary consumers, Primary consumers (herbivores) feed directly on producers. (moose, cattle, grasshoppers, rabbits)Secondary consumers feed on primary consumers,Tertiary consumers feed on secondary consumers.High-level consumers are usually carnivoresOmnivores feed on both producers and consumers.(meat-eaters)
10 Food chain – shows the relationship of feeding and energy transfer in organisms of an ecosystem. Many food chains become connected in a complex relationship known as a food web.
11 Each step in a food chain is known as a trophic level. 1st trophic levelproducer3rd trophic levelsecondary consumerprimary consumertertiary consumer2nd trophic level4th trophic levelEach step in a food chain is known as a trophic level.
12 Cycling of Matternutrientsdecomposing bodiesmoleculesbacteria
13 Scavengers - carnivores that feed on dead animals. Detritivore - eats dead plant and animal remains and convert them into substances that can be reused.They are the recyclers of the ecosystem.There are two types:Scavengers - carnivores that feed on dead animals.(vultures, hyenas, seagulls and ravens)Decomposers - Bacteria and fungi (mushrooms, mold)