2 Essential QuestionHow does energy flow through an ecosystem?
3 The Earth is SOLAR POWERED! ALL LIVING THINGS USE ENERGYThe Earth is SOLAR POWERED!_____________ is the main source of energy for life on Earth.SUNLIGHT
4 AUTOTROPHS = PRODUCERS Can make their own food ALL LIVING THINGS USE ENERGYAUTOTROPHS = PRODUCERS Can make their own foodPHOTOSYNTHESISMost autotrophs use _______________to capture solar energyMain producers on land= green plantsIn water = algaeBIOLOGY; MIller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006
5 HETEROTROPHS = ____________ Get energy from consuming other organisms CONSUMERSHETEROTROPHS = ____________ Get energy from consuming other organisms
6 HETEROTROPHS = CONSUMERS HERBIVORES________________ =eat only plantseat only animalseat both plants & animalsCARNIVORESOMNIVORES
7 HETEROTROPHS = CONSUMERS DETRITIVORES________________ =feed on plant & animal remainsEX: mites, earthworms,snails, crabsbreak down and absorb organic matterEX: bacteria & fungiDECOMPOSERS
8 ↑ ↑ CONSUMERS (Heterotrophs) PRODUCERS (Autotrophs) Energy flows through an ecosystem in a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by being eatenCONSUMERS (Heterotrophs)_________________________________= _________________↑↑PRODUCERS (Autotrophs)FOOD CHAIN
9 Food ChainsFood chains show the transfer of energy from the sun to producer to consumerArrows point in the direction that the energy is going9
10 In most ecosystems feeding relationships are more complex Pearson Education Inc, Publishing as Pearson Prentice HallIn most ecosystems feeding relationships are more complexFOOD WEBA ______________ links ALL the food chains in an ecosystem together.
11 Ecological PyramidsAn ecological pyramid is yet another way of showing the transfer of energy in an ecosystemThey also showHow amount of available energy decreases for higher consumersThat it takes a large number of producers to support a small number of tertiary consumers
12 Ecological PyramidsAn ecological pyramid is a diagram that can show the relative amounts of energy, biomass, or numbers of organisms at each trophic level in an ecosystem.Energy PyramidBiomass PyramidPyramid of Numbers
13 PRODUCERS FIRST Each step in a food chain or web = _______________ ALWAYS make up the ________trophic level.TROPHIC LEVELPRODUCERSFIRST
14 TROPHIC LEVELS = steps in a food chain 1st trophic level is the producer2nd trophic level is the primary consumer or herbivore3rd level is the secondary consumer or smaller carnivore4th level is the tertiary consumer or larger carnivore
16 This is known as the law of 10% 10% Lower levels must bebigger to support thelevel above.Only about_____ ofthe energy fromeach level is passedon.This is known as the law of 10%10%
17 Some energy is used for life processes such as growth, development, movement,metabolism,transport, andreproduction.The rest islost as ________HEAT
18 Pyramid of Energy* energy decreases at each succeeding trophic level –only 10% of the energy goes to the next level0.1%1%10%100%Why not 100%? Because organisms use much of the energyfor life processes (movement, reproduction) and someis released into the environment as heat . (entropy)
19 Biomass Pyramid Biomass – total weight of living things In a pyramid of biomass, each level represents the amount of biomass consumed by the level above it.
20 Pyramid of NumbersPyramid of numbers shows the relative number of organisms at each trophic level.the number of organisms is higher at the bottom of the pyramid (producers) and lower at the top (top consumers)Pyramid of numbers shows the relative number of organisms at each trophic level.