Nigeria contains more historical cultures and empires than any other nation in Africa dating back to 5 th Century AD The first people of Nigeria are the Nok People whose influence spread throughout Africa By the 18 th century many groups had populated the region that is Nigeria today Yoruba, Hausa, Igbo, Falani, Ife, Benin, and Sokoto
British interest in the Nigeria region begins as early as 1806 1821- British government sponsors an expedition south of the Sahara dessert to the Lake Chad region through Hausa territory 1830- British explore along the Niger river to the cost at Lagos British spend the rest of the century establishing trading relationships with tribes along the Niger River and along the coast. Oil River Region- Palm Oil valuable trading product
1884- Berlin Conference- Niger River Region falls to the British in the Scramble for Africa 1900- Royal Niger Company loses charter in the region ending British indirect rule in the region Region divided in Southern Nigeria and Protectorate of Northern Nigeria 1914- Region is united into Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria
What effect do you think World War II is going to have on British control in Nigeria?
After WWII demands for political power begin to take hold in Africa 1951- Nigeria is divided into 3 regions(Northern, Eastern and Western) with their own house assembly Legislative Council for all of Nigeria 1954- new constitution forms Federation of Nigeria 1957- federal Prime Minister appointed in Nigeria 1960- Nigeria given its complete independence from British rule and begins its first attempt at democracy
What are some problems that the newly independent Nigeria may face?
Hausa-Fulani (North) 65% of the population in the north Yoruba (West) 75% of the population in the southwest Igbo (East) 60-70% of the population in the southeast
European made borders cause tribal tension in Nigeria 1966- Yakubu Gowon becomes leader of Nigeria under military control after Igbo rebellion in the East Divides Nigeria into 12 states May 1967-Igbo people in the east declare their independence from Nigeria and form the Republic of Biafra
July 1967- Civil War breaks out in an attempt the reunite the Republic of Biafra with Nigeria US and Britain provide arms and aid to Nigeria while France backs Biafra Nigerian Army meets strong resistance from Biafran rebels Nigerian government cuts off all food supply to Biafra
600,000 people in Biafra die mostly from starvation January 1970- Biafra surrenders and ceases to exist Nigeria is united under Military Rule until 1979