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Capital: Abuja. MAJOR ISSUES Capital: Abuja  Hausa- Fulani (29%)  Yoruba (21%)  Igbo (18%)  Ijaw (10%) www.bbc.co.uk.

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Presentation on theme: "Capital: Abuja. MAJOR ISSUES Capital: Abuja  Hausa- Fulani (29%)  Yoruba (21%)  Igbo (18%)  Ijaw (10%) www.bbc.co.uk."— Presentation transcript:

1 Capital: Abuja

2 MAJOR ISSUES

3 Capital: Abuja

4  Hausa- Fulani (29%)  Yoruba (21%)  Igbo (18%)  Ijaw (10%)

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6  Muslim (50%)  Christian (40%)  Indigenous Beliefs (10%)

7  1800s: Fulani migrated into northern region.  Spread of ISLAM  : Southern region  European trade: spread of CHRISTIANITY  impacted by slave trade.

8 British Colony  North and South administered differently  Indirect Rule  North: Local Muslim rule  Minimal British supervision  South: Traditional colonial regime  British bureaucrats  British-trained indigenous  Introduced Western-style education  Mostly in the South  Privileged elite class  Deepened North/South division

9  First Republic ( )  Parliamentary Govt. after transition to independence.  Civil War and Military Rule ( )  Military coup ended “First Republic”  Began era of military dictatorships  Transition of power  Quick, violent & illegitimate  4 coups d’etat

10  Nigerian Civil War ( )  Ethnic-based  Igbo attempt to break away  Form REPUBLIC OF BIAFRA.  Bloody war and starvation tactics led to 500, million deaths.  Biafra defeated.

11  How does Nigeria’s experience with the Igbo and Biafra compare with other countries we have studied?  Britain  Russia  China  Mexico

12  Olusegun Obasanjo ( )  Military dictator  Voluntarily transitioned to democracy  1979: New Constitution  Created a Presidential System similar to U.S.  Ineffective president  Overthrown by a military coup (1983)

13 CHARACTERISTICS  More coups  More promises of democracy  Competition among generals based on ethnicity.  Institutionalized Corruption  Massive abuse of oil revenues  PATRON-CLIENT SYSTEM

14  Elections were held.  Results annulled by military leader.  Coup replaced old military leader PERIOD OF MILITARY RULE 1999 Third Republic, 1993

15  1999… Another Constitution  (9 th since 1914)  Olusegun Obasanjo: ( )  Elected president for two terms  Military dictator in 1970s  Umaru Yar’Adua: ( )  Died in office  Goodluck Jonathan: (2010-present)  Was Yar’Adua’s VP  Won the 2011 election

16  Established 1998  Oversaw widespread voter fraud in 1999, 2003, &  Attahiru Jega  Appointed in 2010

17  Describe the multiple difficulties INEC faced leading up to the 2011 election.  “Nigeria has yet to hold a credible election” Human Rights Watch after 2007 election

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20 Goodluck Jonathan People’s Democratic Party (PDP)  Ijaw Christian  Negotiated cease fire with Niger Delta militants.  Incumbent Advantage?  Power of patronage  Appointments & contracts  Access to oil revenue

21 Muhammedu Buhari Congress for Progressive Change (CPC) CPC broke away from All Nigeria People’s Party (ANPP)  Fulani Muslim  Former military dictator (‘83-’85) Nuhu Ribadu Action Congress of Nigeria (ACN)  Hausa-Fulani Muslim  Former Chairman of Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC)

22 CandidatePercent of VoteNumber of Votes Jonathan58.9%22.5 million Buhari32.0 %12.2 million Ribadu5.4%2.1 million  17 other candidates also received votes.

23 CandidatePercent of Vote Number of Votes Jonathan58.9%22.5 million Buhari32.0 %12.2 million Ribadu5.4%2.1 million

24  PDP Plan: Presidency rotates every two terms. Muslim from the North Christian from the South PROBLEM  Obasanjo: Christian from South had two terms  Yar’Adua (Muslim) died in office after three years.  Jonathan (Christian) finished Yar’Adua’s term, and ran again.  Muslims didn’t think Jonathan should run.

25  Directly elected by the people.  Winner must receive:  Majority of votes, AND  25% of vote in 2/3 of the states.  Otherwise, the top two have a run-off WHY?  President needs NATIONAL mandate.

26 Good NewsBad News


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