Muslim (50%) Christian (40%) Indigenous Beliefs (10%) www.getreligion.org
1800s: Fulani migrated into northern region. Spread of ISLAM 1500-1800: Southern region European trade: spread of CHRISTIANITY impacted by slave trade.
British Colony North and South administered differently Indirect Rule North: Local Muslim rule Minimal British supervision South: Traditional colonial regime British bureaucrats British-trained indigenous Introduced Western-style education Mostly in the South Privileged elite class Deepened North/South division
First Republic (1960-66) Parliamentary Govt. after transition to independence. Civil War and Military Rule (1966-79) Military coup ended “First Republic” Began era of military dictatorships Transition of power Quick, violent & illegitimate 4 coups d’etat
Nigerian Civil War (1967-1970) Ethnic-based Igbo attempt to break away Form REPUBLIC OF BIAFRA. Bloody war and starvation tactics led to 500,000- 3 million deaths. Biafra defeated. www.blackpast.org
How does Nigeria’s experience with the Igbo and Biafra compare with other countries we have studied? Britain Russia China Mexico
Olusegun Obasanjo (1976-1979) Military dictator Voluntarily transitioned to democracy 1979: New Constitution Created a Presidential System similar to U.S. Ineffective president Overthrown by a military coup (1983)
CHARACTERISTICS More coups More promises of democracy Competition among generals based on ethnicity. Institutionalized Corruption Massive abuse of oil revenues PATRON-CLIENT SYSTEM
Elections were held. Results annulled by military leader. Coup replaced old military leader. 1983 PERIOD OF MILITARY RULE 1999 Third Republic, 1993
1999… Another Constitution (9 th since 1914) Olusegun Obasanjo: (1999-2007) Elected president for two terms Military dictator in 1970s Umaru Yar’Adua: (2007-2010) Died in office Goodluck Jonathan: (2010-present) Was Yar’Adua’s VP Won the 2011 election
Established 1998 Oversaw widespread voter fraud in 1999, 2003, & 2007. Attahiru Jega Appointed in 2010
Describe the multiple difficulties INEC faced leading up to the 2011 election. “Nigeria has yet to hold a credible election” Human Rights Watch after 2007 election
Goodluck Jonathan People’s Democratic Party (PDP) Ijaw Christian Negotiated cease fire with Niger Delta militants. Incumbent Advantage? Power of patronage Appointments & contracts Access to oil revenue
Muhammedu Buhari Congress for Progressive Change (CPC) CPC broke away from All Nigeria People’s Party (ANPP) Fulani Muslim Former military dictator (‘83-’85) Nuhu Ribadu Action Congress of Nigeria (ACN) Hausa-Fulani Muslim Former Chairman of Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC)
CandidatePercent of VoteNumber of Votes Jonathan58.9%22.5 million Buhari32.0 %12.2 million Ribadu5.4%2.1 million 17 other candidates also received votes.
CandidatePercent of Vote Number of Votes Jonathan58.9%22.5 million Buhari32.0 %12.2 million Ribadu5.4%2.1 million
PDP Plan: Presidency rotates every two terms. Muslim from the North Christian from the South PROBLEM Obasanjo: Christian from South had two terms Yar’Adua (Muslim) died in office after three years. Jonathan (Christian) finished Yar’Adua’s term, and ran again. Muslims didn’t think Jonathan should run.
Directly elected by the people. Winner must receive: Majority of votes, AND 25% of vote in 2/3 of the states. Otherwise, the top two have a run-off WHY? President needs NATIONAL mandate.