Presentation on theme: "Directing Definition of directing: Directing is the fourth element of the management process. It refers to a continuous task of making contacts with subordinates,"— Presentation transcript:
Directing Definition of directing: Directing is the fourth element of the management process. It refers to a continuous task of making contacts with subordinates, training them, giving them orders, leading and motivating them. Elements of directing. Communication Communication Leadership Leadership Supervision Supervision Motivation Motivation
Leadership In nursing, leadership is needed in every nursing activity. Every nurse, whether staff nurse, team leader, head nurse, supervisor or nursing director can function as a leader to guide the others toward accomplishing a common goal. Leadership definitions Is the ability to influence the behaviour of others in order to accomplish the task of a group or to achieve the goal of a group, while at the same time maintaining the integrity and morale of the group Leadership is "the process of interpersonal influence in which one individual “the leader” directs and stimulates positive response in a group member(s) “follower(s)” to achieve a desired objective".
Leadership The leader is "a person who interprets and suggests the goal for which a group is working, and who guide, directs and encourages the participation of others toward effective achievement of this goal". Leadership Styles: Leadership style "is the manner by which the leader influences the group members' behaviours in various situations
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Leadership Styles Leadership style is directly related to the amount of control or freedom allowed to the group. Styles of leadership range from very authoritarian to very permissive and change according to the situation. An effective leadership style is one that best complements the organizational environment, the tasks to be accomplished, and the personal characteristics of people involved.
Leadership Styles Different styles are effective in different situations, i.e., there is style to be used by the leader Different styles are effective in different situations, i.e., there is NO best style to be used by the leader Autocratic leadership style: (Directive, authoritarian or restrictive). (Directive, authoritarian or restrictive). Maximum control for the leader with minimum freedom for the group members.
Autocratic leadership style In this style the leader: 1. views workers as naturally lazy, lacking ambition, disliking responsibility, and preferring to be led. 2. Makes all work-related decisions and orders subordinates to carry them out (centralized decision-making i.e. Make decisions alone) 3. Uses minimal group participation. May listen to his subordinate’s directions but is not influenced by them. 4. Puts high concern for task accomplishment and low concern for the people who perform the task (task-oriented). 5. They consider themselves to be in positions of authority and expect their followers to respect them and obey their directions 6. Emphasizes negative reinforcement, top down (one way) communication. 7. Feels little trust or confidence in workers. 8. Exercises power, firm personality, insistent, self-assured, highly directive and dominating. (exercises power with coercion.) 9. Gives feedback to members in the form of personal praise or criticism
Autocratic leadership style Advantages: 1. Less time consuming for decision-making in. 1. Less time consuming for decision-making in emergency or crisis. 2. Useful when group members are inexperienced and the leader is the one who has information and skills. 3. Improves productivity. Disadvantages: 1. Does not encourage individual initiative or cooperation between members of the group, so frustration and conflict may arise in the group. 2. Lack of growth for group members. 3. Less job satisfaction. 4. Less commitment to organization goals
Democratic leadership style (Participative, consultative) The degree of freedom for the group members and leader control is varied, i.e. the range between the two is the democratic style. In this style, the leader: 1. Values the individual characteristics and abilities of each subordinate. 2. Uses personal and positional power and cooperative decision methods to draw out ideas from employees and motivates them to put their own goals, develop their own plans and control their own practice. 3. Is (people-oriented) focus attention on the human aspect and build effective work group. 4. Interacts openly and friendly with persons. 5. Uses two way communication (up and down communication). 6. Works through people not by domination but by suggestions. 7. Encouraging their professional and personal growth.
Democratic leadership style Advantages: 1. Permits and encourages all employees to participate in decision- making. 2. Greater commitment of the employees to their work, so it increases job satisfaction and productivity. 3. Decision made by the group are more effective. 4. Encourages workers’ ideas, suggestions and creations, their professional and personal growth. 5. Good relationship between employee and leader. Disadvantages: 1. Lack of efficiency when group members lack maturity and skills. 2. Time consuming for taking decisions.
Laissez-faire leadership style (Permissive, free reign, let alone). Maximum freedom for the group members with Maximum freedom for the group members with minimum leader control. In this style, the leader: 1. Assume workers are ambitious, responsible, flexible, creative and accepting of organizational goals. 2. Leaves group members free to set their own goals, take decision and determine their own activities without his/her participation. 3. Exhibits lack of control, direction, supervision and coordination. 4. Gives the group total responsibilities without any standard behaviour available or his/her participation.
Laissez-faire leadership style Advantages: In a limited situation, creativity may be encouraged (highly qualified people plan a new approach to problem). Disadvantages: 1. Leads to instability, disorganization and inefficiency. 2. No unity of action leading to decreased productivity. 3. Group members will lose all sense of initiative and desire for achievement. 4. No sense of group unity leading to decreased productivity and satisfaction.
Variables affecting leadership styles The style of leadership used by the leader is dependent on three forces. These forces determine the amount of control a leader will utilize in relation to members of the group: 1. Forces within the leader. 2. Forces within the group members. 3. Forces within the situation. Some forces within the leader: His/her values. Extent of power. Degree of confidence about group members. Degree of comfort in the leadership role. Feeling of security in uncertain situations.
Variables affecting leadership styles Some forces within the group members: 1. Size of the group. 2. Commitment to a common goal. 3. Readiness for responsibility. 4. Degree of maturity. 5. Readiness to share in decision-making. 3. Some forces within the situation: 1. Traditions and values of the organization. 2. Size of the organization and its structure. 3. Pressure of time. 4. Degree to which task is structured
Characteristics of a good leader A good leader must be: A professional nurse and must have capability as a leader. A professional nurse and must have capability as a leader. Willing to assume the responsibilities associated with his/her profession. Willing to assume the responsibilities associated with his/her profession. Interested in people and be able to communicate with them effectively. Interested in people and be able to communicate with them effectively. Not too quick to judge others. Not too quick to judge others. Consistent and fair in all of his/her dealings. Consistent and fair in all of his/her dealings. Able to criticize him/herself objectively. Able to criticize him/herself objectively. Able not to lose his/her self-control and his/her self satisfaction. Able not to lose his/her self-control and his/her self satisfaction. Able to make decisions based on his/her analysis of all available facts. Able to make decisions based on his/her analysis of all available facts. Also, he/she must have: Also, he/she must have: Good health and emotional stability which are very necessary. Good health and emotional stability which are very necessary. A sense of humour. A sense of humour.