Can an individual be taught leadership or are leaders born? Discus the statement above in pairs
Leadership is often taken to represent: Getting others to follow The use of authority in decision-making A personal characteristic An ability to achieve effective performance in others A general definition of leadership (Mullins): A relationship through which one person influences the behaviour or actions of other people.
Traditional view Traditional view sees leadership as about… Command & Control Decision-making Modern view Modern view of leadership includes… Inspiration Creating a vision Building effective teams
Different styles of leadership required for different situations. 4 main styles of leadership … 1.Autocratic 2.Democratic 3.Paternalistic 4.Laissez-Faire
Characteristics Tells others what to do Limits discussion on ideas and new ways of doing things Group does not experience feeling of teamwork
Effective when… Time is limited Individuals/Group lack skill and knowledge Group does not know each other Ineffective when… Developing a strong sense of team is the goal Subordinates are skilled /knowledgeable Group wants an element of spontaneity in their work
Characteristics Involves group members Asks before tells Promotes the sense of teamwork Encourages decision making from different perspectives Consultation before decisions are taken Persuades others that the decision is correct
Effective when… Time is available Group is motivated and/or a sense of team exists Subordinates are skillful or knowledge Ineffective when… Group is unmotivated No skill/knowledge High degree of conflict present It can delay decision making
Characteristics Similar to a parent/child relationship Little delegation A ‘softer’ form of authoritarian leadership Leader explains reasons as to why they have taken certain actions Leader guides and protects as members of his family.
Characteristics Means to “leave alone” Leader has little input into day-to-day decision-making Delegate power Managers / employees have freedom to do what they think is best Opinion offered only when requested
Effective when… High degree of skill and motivation Staff ready & willing to take responsibility Routine is familiar Good interpersonal relations Creativity is needed (advertising agency) Ineffective when… Low degree of skill/knowledge Workers expect to be told what to do Deadlines need to be met
Immobilisation 1. Immobilisation – shock and disbelief. 2. Minimisation - believe it will not affect them. 3. Depression – alienated, angry, lack of control. 4. Acceptance/letting go - start to accept the inevitable but fear of the future exists. 5. Testing out - interact with change. 6. Search for meaning - make change work for you, self esteem begins to rise. 7. Internalisation - change understood and adopted, renewed sense of confidence and self-esteem.
Good leaders need to motivate & inspire - but how? Motivational theorists… F.W. Taylor – Scientific Management F.W. Taylor – Scientific Management Abraham Maslow – Hierarchy of Needs Abraham Maslow – Hierarchy of Needs Frederick Herzberg - Hygiene and motivating factors Frederick Herzberg - Hygiene and motivating factors Elton Mayo – Hawthorne Effect Elton Mayo – Hawthorne Effect
Workers observed using stopwatch & told best method to do a job quickly. Closely monitored & paid on a piece rate pay system. paid for each item produced. Piece-rate pay: paid for each item produced. Taylor believed workers only motivated by money. jobs broken down into small tasks that get repeated. Division of labour: jobs broken down into small tasks that get repeated.
Works well for non-skilled workers. Long term - boredom sets in due to repetition. Workers treated as a resource. See video on intranet about Taylor
Basic needs MUST be met before moving higher up the hierarchy.
Achieving motivation is a two-step process. 1.Meet basic hygiene factors, 2.Now you can motivate employees. Hygiene factors Hygiene factors Things that people expect eg. salary and job security. Improving these lowers dissatisfaction but doesn't improve motivation. Remove sources of unhappiness. Motivators Motivators Factors that actually lead to increased motivation eg. recognition, responsibility. Can only be achieved if hygiene factors addressed.
Study commissioned by Hawthorne Works to study effects of lighting on productivity. Productivity improved when lighting was improved, changed, dimmed??? Found that productivity gain occurred due to motivational effect of interest being shown in workers – TRUE STORY!. Highlighted importance of worker’s social and emotional needs