Presentation on theme: "The Supervisor as Leader If people see you looking out only for your own best interests, they won’t follow you. —Carlos M. Gutierrez, U.S. Secretary of."— Presentation transcript:
8-2 Learning Objectives 1. Discuss the possible link between personal traits and leadership ability. 2. Explain democratic vs. authoritarian leadership. 3. Explain major leadership theories. 4. Identify criteria for choosing a leadership style. 5. Explain how supervisors can develop and maintain good relations with their employees, managers, and peers.
8-3 Leadership Leading –the management function of influencing people to act or not act in a certain way.
8-4 Characteristics of a Successful Leader Sense of responsibility Self-confidence High energy level Empathy Internal locus of control Sense of humor
8-5 Leadership Theories Authoritarian leadership –A leadership style in which the leader retains a great deal of authority Democratic leadership –A leadership style in which the leader allows subordinates to participate in decision making and problem solving
8-6 Leadership Theories Laissez-faire leadership –A leadership style in which the leader is uninvolved and lets subordinates direct themselves
8-7 Possibilities for Retaining Authority Figure 8.1
8-8 The Managerial Grid Task-oriented leader –focuses on the jobs to be done and the goals to be accomplished. People-oriented leader –primarily concerned with the well-being of the employees being managed.
8-9 The Managerial Grid When supervisors help employees see their work as meaningful, give them the resources they need to get the job done, and express appreciation for their accomplishments, the supervisors are contributing to positive results at the same time they are making employees feel satisfied.
8-10 The Managerial Grid Figure 8.2
8-11 Contingency Theories of Leadership Fiedler’s Contingency Model –Each leader has a preferred leadership style, which may be people oriented or task oriented. –Performance depends on three characteristics of the leadership situation: Leader-member relations Task structure The position power of the leader
8-12 Contingency Theories of Leadership Fiedler’s Contingency Model –Fiedler recommends that a leader determine whether his or her preferred leadership style fits the situation. If not, the leader should try to change the characteristics of the situation.
8-13 Contingency Theories of Leadership Hersey-Blanchard theory (Life cycle theory) –Assumes that the leader’s behavior should adapt to the situation. –Leadership style should reflect the maturity of the followers as measured by traits such as ability to work independently. –Leaders should adjust the degree of task and relationship behavior in response to the growing maturity of their followers.
8-14 Model of the Life Cycle Theory of Leadership Figure 8.4
8-15 Contingency Theories of Leadership Path-Goal theory –suggests that the primary activities of a leader are to make desirable and achievable rewards available to organization members who attain organizational goals and to clarify the kinds of behavior that must be performed to earn those rewards
8-16 Path-Goal Theory Leader should exhibit the following behaviors: Directive behavior –involves telling followers what to do and how they are to do it Supportive behavior –involves recognizing that above all, followers are human beings
8-17 Path-Goal Theory (cont.) Participative behavior –involves seeking input from followers about methods for improving business operations Achievement behavior –involves setting a challenging goal for a follower to meet, and expressing confidence that the follower can meet this challenge
8-18 Servant Leadership Servant leadership –involves putting other people’s needs, aspirations, and interests above your own A good listener Empathetic Healing Aware Persuasive
8-19 Entrepreneurial Leadership Entrepreneurial leadership –involves believing that one plays a very important role at a company rather than an unimportant one Visionary, problem solver, decision maker, risk taker
8-20 Choosing a Leadership Style Characteristics of the leader: –The manager’s values –Level of confidence in employees –Personal leaderships strengths –Tolerance for ambiguity
8-21 Choosing a Leadership Style Characteristics of the subordinates: –Need for independence –Readiness to assume responsibility –Tolerance for ambiguity –Interest in the problem to be solved –Understanding of and identification with goals –Knowledge and experience –Expectations
8-22 Choosing a Leadership Style Characteristics of the situation: –Type of organization –Effectiveness of the group –The problem or task –Time available
8-23 Supervisor’s Relationships with Their Employees Supervisors as role models: –When employees evaluate the organization, they look at the supervisor’s behavior and use it as a guide for how they should act. –Supervisors should follow all the rules and regulations. –Supervisors should be ethical and impartial.
8-24 Supervisor’s Relationships with Their Employees Developing trust: –The most important way to build trust is to engage in fair, predictable behavior. –The supervisor should fulfill promises and give employees credit when they do something well.
8-25 Supervisors’ Relationships with Their Managers Expectations –Loyalty –Cooperation –Communication –Results
8-26 Supervisors’ Relationships with Their Managers Learn about your manager If you are dissatisfied –Consider the source of the problem –Talk to your manager –Hunt for another job
8-27 What Managers Expect of Supervisors Figure 8.6
8-28 Supervisors’ Relationships with Their Peers Competition –The more you cooperate, the better you will all look. Criticism –Do not go looking for things to criticize about your peers or anyone else. –If a co-worker must be criticized, go directly to that person and point out the problem before escalating to management. –Focus on the problem and its consequences to the organization, not the personalities involved.