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LECTURE#2 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS, HISTORY AND APPLICATIONS INSTRUCTOR: M. MATEEN YAQOOB

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CONTENTS

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HISTORY OF COMPUTERS Blaise Pascal invented the first mechanical adding machine in 1642 Baron Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz invented the first calculator for multiplication in 1671 Around 1880, Herman Hollerith came up with the concept of punched cards that were extensively used as input media until late 1970s

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PASCAL MECHANICAL ADDING MACHINE

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LEIBNIZ’S CALCULATOR

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Charles Babbage is considered to be the father of modern digital computers He designed “Difference Engine” in 1822 He designed a fully automatic analytical engine in 1842 for performing basic arithmetic functions His efforts established a number of principles that are fundamental to the design of any digital computer

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COMPUTER GENERATIONS “Generation” in computer talk is a step in technology. It provides a framework for the growth of computer industry Originally it was used to distinguish between various hardware technologies, but now it has been extended to include both hardware and software Till today, there are five computer generations

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BASIC OPERATIONS OF COMPUTER (1/2) 1.Inputting. The process of entering data and instructions into the computer system 2.Storing. Saving data and instructions to make them readily available for initial or additional processing whenever required 3.Processing. Performing arithmetic operations (add, subtract, multiply, divide, etc.) or logical operations (comparisons like equal to, less than, greater than, etc.) on data to convert them into useful information

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BASIC OPERATIONS OF COMPUTER (2/2) 4.Outputting. The process of producing useful information or results for the user such as a printed report or visual display 5.Controlling. Directing the manner and sequence in which all of the above operations are performed

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BASIC ORGANIZATION OF A COMPUTER

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INPUT UNIT An input unit of a computer system performs the following functions: It accepts (or reads) instructions and data from outside world It converts these instructions and data in computer acceptable form It supplies the converted instructions and data to the computer system for further processing

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OUTPUT UNIT An output unit of a computer system performs the following functions: It accepts the results produced by the computer, which are in coded form and hence, cannot be easily understood by us It converts these coded results to human acceptable (readable) form It supplies the converted results to outside world

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STORAGE UNIT The storage unit of a computer system holds (or stores) the following : Data and instructions required for processing (received from input devices) Intermediate results of processing Final results of processing, before they are released to an output device

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ARITHMETIC LOGIC UNIT Arithmetic Logic Unit of a computer system is the place where the actual executions of instructions takes place during processing operation

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CONTROL UNIT Control Unit of a computer system manages and coordinates the operations of all other components of the computer system

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CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT

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Computer Organization 1. INTRODUCTION The Second half of the twentieth century is usually known as the Age of Computers The term ‘Computer’ originates.

Computer Organization 1. INTRODUCTION The Second half of the twentieth century is usually known as the Age of Computers The term ‘Computer’ originates.

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