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B ASIC C ONCEPTS O F C OMPUTERS Bajaj Coaching Center, Rohtak For more such slides visit

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Presentation on theme: "B ASIC C ONCEPTS O F C OMPUTERS Bajaj Coaching Center, Rohtak For more such slides visit"— Presentation transcript:

1 B ASIC C ONCEPTS O F C OMPUTERS Bajaj Coaching Center, Rohtak For more such slides visit

2 C OMPUTER The word computer comes from the word compute, which means, to calculate. Thereby, a computer is an electronic device that can perform arithmetic operations at high speed. A computer is also called a data processor because it can store, process, and retrieve data whenever desired. Data is a raw material used as input to data processing and information is processed data obtained as output of data processing.

3 D ATA P ROCESSING The activity of processing data using a computer is called data processing. Data Capture Data Manipulate Data Output Results Information Data is raw material used as input and information is processed data obtained as output of data processing. Bajaj Coaching Center, Rohtak

4 E VOLUTION OF C OMPUTERS Blaise Pascal invented the first mechanical adding machine in 1642. Charles Babbage is considered to be the father of modern digital computers. He designed Difference Engine in 1822 He designed a fully automatic analytical engine in 1842 for performing basic arithmetic functions His efforts established a number of principles that are fundamental to the design of any digital computer.

5 S OME W ELL K NOWN E ARLY C OMPUTERS The Mark I Computer (1937-44) – also known as Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator. The Atanasoff-Berry Computer (1939-42) The ENIAC (1943-46)- The Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator was the first all electronic computer. The EDVAC (1946-52)- Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer. The EDSAC (1947-49)- The Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator. The UNIVAC I (1951)- Universal Automatic Computer.

6 C OMPUTER G ENERATIONS Generation in computer talk is a step in technology. It provides a framework for the growth of computer industry. Originally it was used to distinguish between various hardware technologies, but now it has been extended to include both hardware and software. Till today, there are five computer generations. Bajaj Coaching Center, Rohtak

7 First generation computer Period : 1942 – 1955 Main processing device : Vacuum tubes All data and instructions were fed into the system from punched cards. Bajaj Coaching Center, Rohtak

8 Vacuum tubes

9 Punched cards

10 Large punched cards

11 First generation computer Advantages :. It was only electronic device. First device to hold memory Disadvantages :. Too bulky i.e. large in size. Vacuum tubes burn frequently. They were producing heat. Maintenance problems Bajaj Coaching Center, Rohtak

12 Too bulky i.e. large in size Bajaj Coaching Center, Rohtak

13 Vacuum tubes burn frequently

14 Maintenance problems

15 Second generation computer Period : 1955 – 1964 Inviter : William Shockley Main processing device : Transistor Storage media : Magnetic disc Bajaj Coaching Center, Rohtak

16 Transistor 1 2 Bajaj Coaching Center, Rohtak

17 Second generation computer Advantages : Size reduced considerably Faster than first generation computers Very much reliable. Consumed less power and dissipated less heat. Easier to program and use than the first generation computers.

18 Third generation computer Period : 1964 – 1975 Inviter : Jack Kilby Robert Noyce Main processing device : IC (integrated circuit) Storage media : Floppies

19 IC (integrated circuit)

20 Third generation computer Advantages :. ICs are very small in size. Improved performance. Production cost cheap Disadvantages :. ICs are sophisticated Bajaj Coaching Center, Rohtak

21 Fourth generation computer Period : 1975– present Inviter : Ted Hoff Main processing device : ICs with VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) Storage media : Floppies, CDs.

22 ICs with VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration)

23 Fifth generation computer Period : present and beyond Main processing device : ICs with parallel processing Storage media : Video disks Advantages :. Artificial intelligence. Expert system Bajaj Coaching Center, Rohtak

24 . First generation computer. Second generation computer. Third generation computer. Fourth generation computer. Fifth generation computer Vacuum tubesTransistors ICs Microprocessors ICs with parallel processing

25 Computer is a group of electronic devices used to process the data. The characteristics of a computer are: 4. Accuracy 5. Automation 6. Functionality 7. Tirelessness 1. Speed 2. Reliability 3. Memory capacity Bajaj Coaching Center, Rohtak

26 1.Speed: computer process the data at an unimaginable speed. The speed of the computer ranges up to Nano seconds. 2. Reliability: The next important characteristic of a computer is its reliability. we can always rely on the information given by a computer. 3. Memory capacity: The memory capacity of a computer is measured in in bits and bytes. Large amount of the data can be stored in computer and retrieved. Memory capacity of the computer ranges in Giga bytes.

27 4. Accuracy: Accuracy of the computer is very high it performs calculation with greater accuracy in less time. 5. Automation: a computer allows automation for any process designed in the from of a program. A program can be executed any number of times to repeat the process.

28 6. functionality: computer can performs many kinds of jobs. They not process the data but also can be Used for plying music, movies, and printing jobs. It finds its applications in all most all the fields. 7. Tirelessness: A computer never gate tired. Bajaj Coaching Center, Rohtak

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