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Computer Skills Preparatory Year 2011-2012 Presented by: L. Obead Alhadreti.

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Presentation on theme: "Computer Skills Preparatory Year 2011-2012 Presented by: L. Obead Alhadreti."— Presentation transcript:

1 Computer Skills Preparatory Year 2011-2012 Presented by: L. Obead Alhadreti

2 Lecture 1 - Outline What is a COMPUTER? The history of Computers Types of Computers

3 What is a COMPUTER? Computer: is simply a programmable machine that receives input, processes data, stores data, and produces output. Inputprocessstoreoutput

4 History of Computers The development stages of the computer can be divided into: The Early Days: Up to 1940 The Birth of Computers: 1940–1950 The Modern Era: 1950 to the Present

5 History of Computers The Early Days: Up to 1940 1. Abacus: a simple counting aid, may have been invented in Babylonia (now Iraq) in the fourth century B.C. 2. Arabic numeral: are introduced to Europe in the eighth and ninth centuries. Introduced the concepts of the zero and fixed places for tens, hundreds, thousand, etc., and greatly simplified mathematical calculations.

6 History of Computers 3. Binary system: developed by Gottfried Leibniz in 1600s, is of critical importance for the development of modern computers. 4. Pascal's calculator: the French philosopher and mathematician Blaise Pascal invented a calculating device that would come to be called the "Adding Machine".

7 History of Computers 5. Difference engine: a mechanical calculator developed by Charles Babbage in 1823. Did addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division to 6 significant digits. 6. Analytic engine : considered the first computer ever. A general-purpose, automatic mechanical computer, developed by Charles Babbage in 1833.

8 History of Computers The Birth of Computers: 1940–1950 Development of electronic, general-purpose computers, was fueled in large part by needs of World War II. 1. Mark I: a general-purpose, electromechanical programmable computer that used a mix of relays, magnets, and gears to process and store data. devised by Howard H. Aiken, and built at IBM in 1944. used by the U.S. Navy in WWII.

9 History of Computers 2. ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator): Completed in 1946 by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert at the University of Pennsylvania. First fully electronic general-purpose programmable computer in WWII. 1000 times faster than the MARK1. Contained 18,00-19,000 vacuum tubes, Nearly filled a building (100 feet long,10 feet high and weighed 30 tons). Programmed externally.

10 History of Computers 3. Von Neumann: called the Father of the Modern Computer, proposed Von Neumann architecture (known as the stored-program computer model) in 1946. consisted of central arithmetic part, a central control part, a memory to store both data and instructions, external storage, and input and output mechanisms. Programmed internally.

11 History of Computers The Modern Era: 1950 to the Present 1. The First Generation (1950-1959): used vacuum tubes to store data and programs, large size (i.e. multiple rooms), and a lot of heat. 2. The Second Generation (1959-1965): used the transistors, smaller size, and cheaper. High-level programming languages were born.

12 History of Computers 3. The Third Generation (1965-1975): used integrated circuits (known as microchip) rather than individual electronic components, further reduction in size and cost of computers. 4. The Forth Generation (1975-1985): appearance of microcomputer, computer networks, electronic mail, and graphical user interfaces.

13 History of Computers 5. The Fifth Generation (1985-present): handheld devices and wireless data communications appeared. Powerful processors and massive storage devices.

14 Types of Computers Computers can be divided into: 1. Super Computer : large size, huge capacity, high-speed processing, and linked with hundreds of end units. Very expensive ! e.g. can be found in Saudi Aramco. 2. Mainframe: used by large organisations such as banks to control the entire business operation. Linked with many end units.

15 Types of Computers 3. Minicomputer : Smaller than mainframe, has become obsolete as having capacity equal to personal computer. 4. Personal Computer (PC) / Micro-computer: Most peoples computer. Cheap and easy to use. Deals with one person only. e.g. Desktop, laptop, and pocket.

16 Types of Computers 5. Workstation : deals only with one person, but stronger in the process capability and the storage capacity of the memory. Huge capability in dealing with the drawing. 6. Network Computer: minimal memory, disk storage and processor power, designed to connect to a network, especially the Internet. Less expensive than PCs.

17 Lecture 1 - Conclusion What is a COMPUTER? The history of Computers Types of Computers

18 Lecture 2 – Next Week! The main parts of the Personal Computer Computer Hardware Memory Measurement

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