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China’s Two Golden Ages, Tang and Song Chapter 12.1, 12.2

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Presentation on theme: "China’s Two Golden Ages, Tang and Song Chapter 12.1, 12.2"— Presentation transcript:

1 China’s Two Golden Ages, Tang and Song Chapter 12.1, 12.2

2 China Han Dynasty collapsed in 220 C.E. Didn’t have a strong emperor
For over 350 years, struggle over leadership Tang Dynasty: Ruled for 300 years, from C.E. Important emperor: Tang Taizong

3 Tang Dynasty With Tang Taizong, the empire expanded (626-649)
The only woman emperor in China was Wu Zhao, from Promoted trade Tried to use the system of civil service examinations for government, but generally was ruled by wealthy men

4 Economy Grows Trained officials in Confucian philosophy
New law code (set of rules) Land Reform: rulers broke up large pieces of land and gave smaller pieces to poor peasants Increased taxes for government Lots of art, culture, writing during Tang and Song Dynasties

5 Decline of the Tang Government was very expensive, so the Tang emperors imposed heavy taxes in the 700s C.E. Made many people very poor Could not control their empire: it was too big Lost territory to Arab invaders Drought, famine, rebellions 907 C.E: Chinese rebels burned the capital down and murdered the last Tang emperor

6 The Song Dynasty: 960-1279 C. E. 960 C.E.: a general reunites China
Trade, Education, Art, Agricultural advancements Economic growth Population soared to over 100 million people Technological advances: Moveable type Gunpowder Clocks Paper money Magnetic compass Negative numbers

7 Structured Society in China
Education is valued, most government officials came from the gentry class (wealthy landowners) Pleasants were mostly self-sufficient, not much interaction with the emperor Merchants were the lowest class, because their livelihood comes from the work of other people

8 Women in China Women had higher status, could run family
But, society still valued boys over girls When women married, had to leave their own family, did not get to keep her dowry and could never remarry Foot binding as a sign of wealth, but also crippled girls Forced women to stay home

9 Mongolian Conquests Nomadic
Follow herds of animals, and weather across the steppes of Central Asia Interacted with settled people a lot Traded peacefully sometimes, but also raided richer towns. Sometimes they joined settled communities Mongolian Conquests

10 Genghis Khan Around 1200 C.E., united Mongolian tribes
“Universal Ruler” Conquered huge amounts of land, massacred many using different strategies Brilliant organizer Smart strategist Cruel—used fear to conquer Demanded loyalty Cultural Diffusion: used military technology from Turks and others

11 Kublai Khan Grandson of Genghis Khan Established peace in empire
Pax Mongolica (Mongol Peace) Yuan Dynasty, C.E. United China again Trade with foreigners Cultural Diffusion with Arabia, Africa, Europe Settled life

12 Marco Polo Italian merchant who traveled to the Yuan Dynasty
Lived 17 years with Kublai Khan, then wrote a book of his experiences His writings caused Europe to be very interested in China

13 End of Mongol Rule Yuan Dynasty fell after Kublai Khan died in 1294
Most Chinese hated the Mongols and were ready for a Chinese ruler again A peasant led a revolt against the Mongols and established the Ming Dynasty in 1368

14 Ming Dynasty Productive economy New technology, art, porcelain
Exploration: Zheng He, 1405, took 250 ships with 28,000 sailors into the ocean, past India and into the Red Sea When He died, Ming ended exploration and banned large ships—historians are not sure why Only 50 years later Columbus sailed across the ocean

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