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The Mongol and Ming Empires

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1 The Mongol and Ming Empires
LEQ: How did the Mongol invasion and the rise of the Ming dynasty affect China?

2 Who were the Mongols? Nomadic people of Central Asia. Skilled warriors and horseback riders. Mongol tribes were united by Genghis Khan “Universal Ruler.” He was a strong and ruthless leader, who led a fierce army.

3 His empire spanned from Northern Asia to Eastern Europe.

4 They adopted the use of cannons to attack walled cities in China.

5 Mongol Rule To conquer territories, the Mongols would massacre and completely destroy cities. Once an area was conquered, the Mongols ruled with toleration and justice. Pax Mongolica was time of peace and order under Mongol rule. Stability led to economic growth. The Silk Road and trade flourished.

6 China Under Mongol Rule
Kublai Khan (Genghis Khan’s grandson) toppled the Song dynasty and established the Yuan dynasty. In the Yuan dynasty only Mongols could… serve in the military hold the highest government jobs Chinese officials were allowed to rule in the provinces since the empire was too large for the Mongols to rule alone.

7 A Mongolian Emperor And His Wife

8 China Under Mongol Rule
Arab architects designed Kublai Khan’s palace. Foreigners were welcomed to his court, such as, Marco Polo. Contact between Europe and Asia continued. Some Chinese products moved to Europe.

9 Marco Polo wrote of the splendor and wealth of China.
Porcelain, playing cards, gunpowder , and papermaking were introduced to Europe. Marco Polo wrote of the splendor and wealth of China. The Pope sent Christian priests to Beijing.

10 Fall of Mongol Rule After Kublai Khan’s death the Yuan dynasty began to decline. Heavy taxes Corruption Resentment of foreign rule Lack of support from Confucian scholars A rebel army topple the Mongols and pushed them beyond the Great Wall. The Ming dynasty was established by Zhu Yuanzhang.

11 Founder of the Ming Dynasty
Zhu Yuanzhang Founder of the Ming Dynasty

12 Ming Dynasty Ming means “brilliant.” Civil service exams were put back in place to determine government officials. Confucian learning became the most important kind of education. Censors watched over the bureaucracy to get rid of corruption.

13 Civil Service Exam

14 Farming improved with…
Ming Dynasty Farming improved with… better methods of fertilizing. more land cultivated. new crops brought in from the Americas (esp. corn and sweet potatoes). Canal systems promote trade and expanded cities. Art and literature flourished.

15 Terrace Farming Canal System

16 Ming Dynasty Chinese fleets were sent out to promote trade and collect tribute from lesser powers. Zheng He was a Chinese admiral and diplomat. Trading centers developed and Chinese merchants settled all over Asia. When Zheng He died, the Ming emperor banned the expeditions. Less than 60 years later, Spain became a major player in exploration.

17 Zheng He Expeditions

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