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The student will analyze continuity and change in Africa leading to the 21st century.

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Presentation on theme: "The student will analyze continuity and change in Africa leading to the 21st century."— Presentation transcript:


2 The student will analyze continuity and change in Africa leading to the 21st century.

3 Key Terms & People Terms Apartheid Nationalism Independence Partition
Pan- African Movement Artificial Boundaries People Nelson Mandela F.W. de Klerk

4 Early Africa and European Colonization
Africa is the world’s second largest continent and is home to many different peoples and cultures. Early Africans were hunter gatherers Many rivers like the Nile, Niger, and Congo, allowed people to travel and carry on trade with outside groups

5 Trade and Slaves People in other regions sought the gold, copper, salt, and ivory that African traders provided. Trade opened Africa to the rest of the world Africans also made money trading slaves

6 Trade and Slave Continued….
Before Europeans arrived and began to conquer parts of Africa, a number of African societies grew wealthy and powerful Much of their prosperity was due to agriculture development and trade with other civilizations

7 European Colonization
In the 19th Century Europeans aggressively established colonies in Africa. Europeans wanted to control African territories and the wealth their resources produced. European powers used their superior military strength to conquer and colonize parts of Africa. Great Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Portugal all established colonies in Africa.

8 The Berlin Conference Hosted by German chancellor Otto von Bismarck.
Held in Berlin Major European powers laid down guidelines regarding European claims to African territories. Officially recognized German and British claims in eastern Africa and awarded Mozambique to Portugal

9 Berlin Conference Continued.
Did not include any Africans only Europeans discussed Africa’s faith Divided up Africa among European Nations

10 Artificial Boundaries
The Berlin Conference drew artificial Boundaries Boundaries did not divide Africa based on ethnic groups but available resources that the Europeans wanted This divided many groups of people Often, they were forced to coexist with other groups they had long considered enemies

11 Political Cartoon Analysis

12 African Nationalism Africa was controlled by European nations for decades. Africans began to protest European control during the late 20th century Many Africans thought that they would gain their independence after helping the Europeans in WWI. In protest many Africans organized nationalist movements

13 African Nationalism These movements called for independent African states Blacks in South Africa and Nigeria formed trade unions African independence movements grew in the years leading to WWII By the end of the 1960’s nearly every European nation had granted independence to nations in Africa

14 African Nationalism Cause and Effect

15 The Pan-African Movement
Nationalist movements inspired pride in one’s country and people. Many of the leaders calling for African independence were black Africans who had been educated overseas in Europe or the United States Calls for African independence spread across the continent following WWII The Pan-African movement called for black Africans to see themselves as a united people in their fight against European colonization

16 The Pan-African Movement
The Pan-African movement led to the founding of the African Union in 2001 The African Union seeks to unite Africans in an effort to improve conditions across the continent Economic growth, the end of poverty and starvation, advancement of women's rights, improved education, and the end of African wars are among the noblest goals.

17 Pan African Movement Flyer and Slogan

18 Nationalism (Kenya) Although there was a European presence in this part of Africa as early as 1498, Kenya did not become an official British colony until 1920. Black people in the colony were denied a role in politics until 1944, when a few black people were allowed to run and hold office. In the 1950s, there was a violent, seven year uprising resulting in the deaths of tens of thousands of black Kenyans. Black participation in government increased steadily during this period. Kenya became independent of British rule in 1964, under the leadership of Joseph Kenyatta, a leader of the Kenyan African National Union (KNAU) While Kenya was glad to be free of British rule the government of Kenya was not open or free. Kenyatta and his successor Daniel ran unopposed for almost every election until the early 1990’s Some argue that the democracy style government of the west does not fit Kenya The country remains a multi-party state on the books, but the reality is that the KNAU still controls much of the government.

19 A summary of my notes Reflective Notes

20 Nigeria British influence in Nigeria began in 1885 and the territory officially became a British colony in 1914. A largely peaceful nationalist movement in Nigeria led the British to move Nigeria gradually toward independence between 1945 and 1960. Nigeria gained independence from Britain in 1960, and most people expected the new state to be stable and calm. Economic development by the British during the colonial period was unequally distributed in the territory that became the country of Nigeria. This allowed some of the ethnic groups in the country to have greater wealth and power than other ethnic groups. Within a few months, however, war broke out between the Christian south and the Muslim north. The religious war left many thousands dead or injured. The country tried to reorganize as 12 different regions, even the oil-rich province in the eastern part of the country declared itself to be the Independent State of Biafra

21 Colonization in Nigeria Continued…
Military coups and outbreaks of violence marked the years that followed. Elections were held in 1999 that seemed more free and open than what had gone before, but the government still remains unstable Nigeria has the potential to have great wealth from their oil supplies. However, because of corruption in the government this resource has not been developed. As a result, Nigeria must rely on foreign aid and foreign supplies for their people.

22 DOK: L3 Independence movement of Nigeria to that of Kenya

23 Leveled Text Response Questions
When did Nigeria gain independence? Identify patterns in European conquest using the following countries: Kenya, Nigeria, and South Africa Leveled Text Response Questions

24 Nationalism (South Africa)
The colony of South Africa was founded by the Dutch in the mid 1600’s Many Dutch settlers came there, and were eventually called the Boers, they had little to do with the native Africans, other than to consider them as servants or working people. When the British took over the colony in the early 1800’s , many of the descendants of the Dutch settlers moved north to land occupied by the native Zulus This move led to warfare with the Zulu’s, a tribe that later fought the British as well The Dutch descendants set up two new states in South Africa, Transvall and Orange Free State. In the 1900’s, these states were eventually consolidated with British South Africa to form the Union of South Africa, a state that by this time had discovered vast deposits of gold and diamonds. The independence of South Africa from the British Empire was established by the white minority in Their decision to declare themselves a republic was driven by their desire to maintain the system of Apartheid. Native African citizens were considered second class citizens in the Union of South Africa, they formed the African National Congress (ANC) to work for equal treatment of the non white population The nationalist movement in South Africa did not achieve independence from a colonial power; rather, it defeated the Apartheid system and established equal rights for black and “colored” South Africans.

25 Nationalism (South Africa) Continued….
The African National Congress worked for many years to end this system of apartheid, eventually getting international community help by imposing embargos on the Union of South Africa. By 1985, pressure from the embargo and continuing resistance led by the African National Congress and the Pan African Congress forced the South African government to begin making changes. Apartheid began to come apart, and in 1994 South Africa held its first multiracial elections and chose Nelson Mandela as the country’s first black president.

26 What were the overall goals of apartheid laws within South Africa?
In the notes I speak of “international community help” what type of help am I referring to? How did the world respond to the apartheid laws of South Africa? What role did Nelson Mandela and F.W.De Klerk play in abolishing apartheid laws in South Africa?

27 Students should understand the rationale for the creation of and the purpose of apartheid laws in South Africa during the 1940s. Students should be able to explain what apartheid was and its impact on the non- white population of South Africa. Students should be able to explain the world reaction to this policy and process by which apartheid was defeated in South Africa. In discussing the roles of Mandela and deKlerk, students do not need to know biographical information, rather their part

28 Countries and Independence
Country Year of Independence Colonial Country

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