Presentation on theme: "History of Africa SS7H1 The student will analyze continuity and change in Africa leading to the 21st century. a. Explain how the European partitioning."— Presentation transcript:
1 History of AfricaSS7H1 The student will analyze continuity and change in Africa leading to the 21st century.a. Explain how the European partitioning across Africa contributed to conflict, civil war, and artificial political boundaries.b. Explain how nationalism led to independence in South Africa, Kenya, and Nigeria.c. Explain the creation and end of apartheid in South Africa and the roles of Nelson Mandela and F.W.de Klerk.d. Explain the impact of the Pan-African movement.
3 WHAT DOYOU THINKTHE ARTISTIS TRYINGTOCOMMUNICATEIN THISPOLITICALCARTOON?
4 a. Explain how the European partitioning across Africa contributed to conflict, civil war, and artificial political boundaries.IMPERIALISM: the policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring and holding coloniesThe Berlin Conference was conducted, and European powers (Great Britain, France, Spain, Portugal, Germany, Belgium, and Italy) agreed to divide the continent into European governed colonies.This division was disastrous as the new boundary lines divided ethnic groups and in most cases forced rival ethnic groups to live together.The Europeans wanted the natural resources to fuel the Industrial Revolution. As they made products, they then forced African colonies to buy them for much more than they received for their resources.
5 IN 1878, MUCH OF AFRICA WAS NOT COLONIZED BY EUROPE …BUT BY 1885, OVER 90% OF AFRICA WOULD BE UNDER THE CONTROL OF EUROPEAN EMPIRES, PARTICULARLY THE BRITISH AND THE FRENCH
6 (REASONS FOR COLONIZATION) (PARTITIONING of AFRICA) The 5 W’s of European Influence in AfricaWHO(EUROPEAN EMPIRES)GREAT BRITAINFRANCEBELGIUMGERMANYITALYSPAINPORTUGALWHAT(REASONS FOR COLONIZATION)Natural ResourcesSlave or Cheap LaborNew Markets for EuropeSuez Canal Trade RouteSpread of European CultureChristian MissionariesWHEN (DEVELOPMENT)1652: Dutch Colony in South Africa1806: Britain control South Africa andparts of West Africa1848: French colonize North Africa1867: King Leopold II of Belgiumcolonizes central Africa1884: Berlin Conference1899: Boer War between Dutchsettlers and British militaryWHERE(AREAS OF INTEREST)Over 90% of Africa came under European control after the Berlin Conference, but the only territories that were not colonized by the European empires were Liberia and Ethiopia.WHY(PARTITIONING of AFRICA)Reacting to the Scramble or Race for Africa leaders of European empires met in Berlin, Germany to resolve potential conflicts between European empires over the control of African colonies. They divided up the land and created new boundary lines without any input by the people of Africa.
7 The Negatives of Colonialism Rival ethnic groups forced to live together causing conflicts and wars.Lost many resources without equal return.Lost their freedom to govern themselves.Africans were forced to work on plantations and in mines for very little money.Children as young as 10 are recruited for civil wars in Africa
8 The Positives of Colonialism Improved roads and railroadsImproved medical centersImproved schoolsImproved economies –jobs and technologyDemocracies allow freedom for many people (except in countries where corruption leads to dictatorships)Hospitals in South Africa are heavily burdened by HIV- infected children—a leading health issue in Africa.
9 Impact of Colonial rule in Africa NEGATIVE IMPACTSlaveryWars and RiotsStarvation and PovertyDiseaseForced Cheap LaborLoss of Land and PowerNew boundaries separated families and tribesCivil Wars between ethnic groupsPOSITIVE IMPACTSchools and hospitals were builtImproved health careRoads and railroads were builtNew governments and democracyImproved economies / New technologiesEnd of Slavery
10 Conflict between native Africans and Europeans during colonization Conflicts in Africa because of artificial political boundaries created by Europeans during the Berlin Conference ofConflict between native Africans and Europeans during colonizationConflict between ethnic groupsConflict over who should have political power AFTER Africans gained independence from Europe
11 FROM1910 to 1988DIFFERENTCOLONIES INAFRICA GAINEDTHEIRINDEPENDENCEFROM EUROPEANEMPIRES.THESE AREKNOWN ASNATIONALISTMOVEMENTS.
12 How did nationalism lead to independence in South Africa, Kenya and Nigeria?
13 South AfricaSouth Africa was originally settled by the Dutch who had little to do with the native Africans. When the British took over in the early 1800s, the Dutch moved into land occupied by the Zulu tribe.Britain soon discovered rich deposits of gold and diamonds in South Africa.Because the British considered the native Africans second-class citizens, the Africans founded the African Nation Congress (ANC) to work for equal treatment of the nonwhite population.South Africa set up a strict system of separation of the races called the apartheid system. The ANC worked for many years to end this system, eventually getting international help through the use of embargos. By 1985, the embargos and continuing resistance led by African National Congress and the Pan African Congress forced South African government to begin making changes.Apartheid began to come apart and in 1994 South Africa held its first multiracial election and chose Nelson Mandela as the country’s first black president.
14 NigeriaNigeria gained independence from Britain in 1960, and most people expected the new state to be stable and calm. Within months, however, war broke out between the Christian south and the Muslim north.The religious war left many thousands dead or injured. The country tried to reorganize as 12 different regions, even the oil-rich province in the eastern part of the country declared itself to be the independent State of Biafra.Military coups and outbreaks of violence marked the years that followed. Elections were held in 1999 that seemed more free and open than wheat had gone before, but the government still remains unstable.Nigeria has the potential to have great wealth from their oil supplies. However, because of corruption in the government this resource has not been developed. As a result, Nigeria must rely on foreign aid and foreign supplies for their people.
15 KenyaKenya became independent of British rule in 1964, under the leadership of Joseph Kenyatta, a leader of the Kenyan National African Union (KNAU).Even free from British rule, government was not open or free. Under Kenyatta and his successor, Daniel arap Moi, the KNAU ran almost unopposed in every national election until the 1990s.At that time, the international community told Kenya unless they improved their civil rights record, economic assistance from abroad would be cut off.There has been some improvement in the political rights of Kenya’s people, but more is needed. The country remains a multi-party state on the books, but the reality is that the KNAU still controls much of the government.
16 Weds/Thursday Warm Up Q’s What was the purpose of the African National Congress (ANC)?What happened in Nigeria right after they obtained independence?Who is Joseph Kenyatta?Why were European countries so interested in colonizing Africa?
17 How did the new government enforce this new policy? The implementation of the apartheid, later referred to as "separate development," was made possible by the Population Registration Act of 1950This put all South Africans into three racial categories: Bantu (black African), White, or Colored (of mixed race). A fourth category, Asian (Indians and Pakistanis), was added later.
18 Afrikaner Nationalists’ policies Apartheid was enforced by a series of laws passed in the 1950s: the Group Areas Act of 1950 assigned races to different residential and business sections in urban areasThe Land Acts of 1954 and 1955restricted nonwhite residence to specific areas.further restricted the limits on Blacks owning landWhite minority controlled over 80% of S. Africa’s land.Other laws were passed that limited non white power:prohibited most social interaction between the racesenforced the segregation of public facilities (schools, jobs)minimized nonwhite participation in governmentPlaced non whites into certain “homelands”
20 A number of black political groups, often supported by sympathetic whites, opposed apartheid using a variety of tactics:including violence, strikesdemonstrations and sabotage –These tactics were often met with severe consequences from the government.
21 CHANGING THEIR WAYS…As anti-apartheid pressure mounted within and outside of South Africa, the South African government, led by President F. W. de Klerk, began to dismantle the apartheid system in the early 1990s.In 1994 the country's constitution was rewritten and free general elections were held for the first time in its history, and with Nelson Mandela's election as South Africa's first black president, the last remnants of the apartheid system were finally outlawed.
22 What role did these men play in ending apartheid in South Africa? NELSON MANDELAF.W. de KLERK
23 Nelson Mandela & F. W. de Klerk During Apartheid, 2 groups were working to end this South African regime – the African National Congress led by Nelson Mandela, and the Pan African Congress.Riots and fighting took place constantly - Nelson Mandela was sentenced to life in prison for his work against apartheid.Eventually, the S. African government had to admit that their policy of apartheid had no place in the modern world.In 1990, South African President F.W. de Klerk agreed to allow the ANC to operate as a legal party and he released Nelson Mandela from prison after he had served 27 years in prison.F.W de Klerk also began to repeal the apartheid laws.Apartheid finally ended in 1994, however South Africa still struggles with high unemployment rates due to the old segregated system.
24 d. Explain the impact of the Pan-African movement. The Pan-African movement began as a reaction to the terrible experiences of colonial rule and the desire for people of African descent, no matter where they lived in the world, to think of Africa as a homeland.The first people to support the idea of Pan-Africans were Africans who were living in other parts of the world. They felt all Africans no matter where they lived, shared a bond with each other. They also called for Africans all over the continent to think of themselves as one people and to work for the betterment of all.They wanted to end European control of the continent and to make Africa a homeland for all people of African descent.While the peaceful unification of Africa has never taken place, the Pan-African movement can take a lot of credit for sparking independence movements that left nearly all African nations free of colonial rule by the 1980s.
25 The numbers don’t lie . . .BlacksWhitesPopulationLand allocationShare of national incomeMinimum taxable incomeDoctors/populationInfant mortality rateAnnual expenditure on education per studentTeacher/student ratio19 million million13% %<20% %360 rands rands1/44, /40020%-40% %$ $6961/ /22