How can we do our research: Primary Sources Primary Sources: Documents that were produced as the event was happening. – EXAMPLES: official documents, first-hand accounts, and visual evidence (pictures, paintings, etc)
How can we do our research: Secondary Sources Secondary Sources: Documents created by someone either not present when an event took place, or removed in time from the event. – EXAMPLES: A history textbook, or a biography written about Abraham Lincoln today
How Do We Know? Ask yourself these questions when determining if a source is primary or secondary: – What is this source telling me? – Whose point of view is it? – What other points of views do we need?
How did America become what it is today? American colonists came over from England Native American land England’s influences were great We wanted to break away from them Religious tolerance » Separation of Church and State » Egalitarianism: All humans are fundamentally equal. No taxation without representation American Revolution
What is Civics? Defined: Civics is the study of the rights and duties of citizens. In ancient Greece, where citizenship originated, only men with property had the rights to be citizens. Look how far we have come…
Are you still a citizen if you are not physically living in the US? YES. American citizens who live abroad are still representing the US. Example: Uproar about Jersey Shore in Italy. Citizens are part of a country, they share a common history, beliefs, and customs, and agree to follow a set of rules and to accept the government’s authority. What are some rules we as Americans, are forced to accept?
A Changing Society American society has undergone many changes in the past, and these changes continue today. Early Immigration: 1600s, French and English settlers in America. After Independence: After American independence from England, there was a drastic increase in European immigrants. Enslaved Africans: Africans were forced out of their countries and into the American slave trade. Now: The majority of immigrants are from Latin America, followed by Asia.
Paths to Citizenship In the United States, there are two ways to become a citizen: 1. By birth: If you are born in the US, or in a US territory, you are a US citizen. 2. Naturalization: A legal process a foreigner has to go through to become a citizen.
Aliens Aliens: non-citizens – Legal: Resident Alien: Established permanent residence and can stay in the US for as long as they wish without becoming American citizens. Non-Resident Alien: A Person from a foreign country who expects to stay in the US for a short, specified period. – Illegal: Immigration restrictions Always in fear of deportation – Do you think that we should deport them if we find them? What if they have families?
These are not in your notes, so please take notes
The Need for Government Government: The ruling authority for a community. Any organization that has the power to make and enforce, or carry out, laws and decisions for its members. -We talked about how a government is needed to help structure and control a community. What did we say would happen if there was no government?
What Governments Do: 1. Keep Order: Governments make laws to keep order. 2. Provide Security: Protect the people and their land Armed forces/military
What Governments Do (cont) 3. Provide Public Services: Aimed at keeping the public healthy and safe. – Affordable housing, healthcare, food aid. – Create and manage libraries, schools, hospitals, parks, and recreation centers. Government workers build and repair bridges, collect trash, and deliver the mail. 4. Guide the Community: Formulate public policy (a course of government action to achieve community goals) Example: Creating a budget
Discussion What do you think is the most important thing governments do, and why? 1. Keep Order 2. Provide Security 3. Provide Public Services 4. Guide the Community
Levels of Government National: The government of the entire country Includes the President, Vice President, national Congress. Has the highest level of authority over its citizens Provides basic framework for citizenship State and Local: Decides matters for the state Cannot make laws going against the national government. Local is closest to the people (city, towns, county), state encompasses an entire state.