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Early Industrial Revolution Chapter 7 Section 1

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1 Early Industrial Revolution Chapter 7 Section 1

2 Objectives Summarize the key developments in the transportation revolution of the early 1800s. Analyze the rise of industry in the United States in the early 1800s. Describe some of the leading inventions and industrial developments in the early 1800s.

3 Developing Near Water Water was the most efficient way to move people and goods. Overland transportation was expensive whether by cart, wagon, sleigh, stagecoach, horse, or oxen.

4 National Road States chartered toll roads, called turnpikes.
Few turnpikes made a profit or really improved the cost or speed of transportation. An exception was the National Road. In 1818, this route of crushed stone extended from Maryland to the Ohio River.

5 Steamboats In 1807, the first practical steamboat, the Clermont, began sailing from New York City. Steamboats shortened a trip up the Mississippi from New Orleans to Louisville from months to days.

6 Canals States built canals, artificial waterways that linked unconnected rivers, lakes, and ports. The Erie Canal ran 363 miles from Lake Erie to the Hudson River. Canals linked farms in the Midwest to markets in the East, leading to tremendous growth in agriculture.

7 Railroads Railroads provided the most dramatic transportation growth.
The first railroads started in Britain in the 1820s. The United States had 13 miles of track in 1830 and 31,000 miles by 1860.

8 Industrial Revolution
British factories began using machines powered by steam or water to spin thread or weave cloth. This was the start of the Industrial Revolution. In 1793, Samuel Slater, an English emigrant, built a water-powered mill from memory in Pawtucket, Rhode Island.

9 Francis Cabot Lowell Francis Cabot Lowell combined all of the steps to manufacture cloth in one location, in Waltham, Massachusetts. He employed young single girls from area farms.

10 Technology Work was divided into small tasks, reducing the level of skill or training needed for many jobs. Unskilled workers could be paid less

11 Interchangeable Parts
Improved efficiency in manufacturing and repair. Workers made individual components that were later assembled.

12 Elias Howe invented a sewing machine women could use at home

13 Telegraph Samuel Morse developed an electric telegraph.
Morse code used dots and dashes to instantly send information for miles. By 1860, the United States had 50,000 miles of telegraph line.

14 Farming The rise of the factory system coincided with great technological advances These advances were also seen in farms Cyrus McCormick developed a mechanical reaper

15 John Deere designed a light but strong steel plow

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