2 ObjectivesSummarize the key developments in thetransportation revolution of the early 1800s.Analyze the rise of industry in the UnitedStates in the early 1800s.Describe some of the leading inventions andindustrial developments in the early 1800s.
3 Developing Near WaterWater was the most efficient way to move people and goods.Overland transportation was expensive whether by cart, wagon, sleigh, stagecoach, horse, or oxen.
4 National Road States chartered toll roads, called turnpikes. Few turnpikes made a profit or really improved the cost or speed of transportation.An exception was the National Road. In 1818, this route of crushed stone extended from Maryland to the Ohio River.
5 SteamboatsIn 1807, the first practical steamboat, the Clermont, began sailing from New York City.Steamboats shortened a trip up the Mississippi from New Orleans to Louisville from months to days.
6 CanalsStates built canals, artificial waterways that linked unconnected rivers, lakes, and ports.The Erie Canal ran 363 miles from Lake Erie to the Hudson River.Canals linked farms in the Midwest to markets in the East, leading to tremendous growth in agriculture.
7 Railroads Railroads provided the most dramatic transportation growth. The first railroads started in Britain in the 1820s.The United States had 13 miles of track in 1830 and 31,000 miles by 1860.
8 Industrial Revolution British factories began using machines powered by steam or water to spin thread or weave cloth. This was the start of the Industrial Revolution.In 1793, Samuel Slater, an English emigrant, built a water-powered mill from memory in Pawtucket, Rhode Island.
9 Francis Cabot LowellFrancis Cabot Lowell combined all of the steps to manufacture cloth in one location, in Waltham, Massachusetts.He employed young single girls from area farms.
10 TechnologyWork was divided into small tasks, reducing the level of skill or training needed for many jobs.Unskilled workers could be paid less
11 Interchangeable Parts Improved efficiency in manufacturing and repair.Workers made individual components that were later assembled.
12 Elias Howe invented a sewing machine women could use at home
13 Telegraph Samuel Morse developed an electric telegraph. Morse code used dots and dashes to instantly send information for miles.By 1860, the United States had 50,000 miles of telegraph line.
14 FarmingThe rise of the factory system coincided with great technological advancesThese advances were also seen in farmsCyrus McCormick developed a mechanical reaper
15 John Deere designed a light but strong steel plow