# Latitude and Longitude: Finding Locations on Planet Earth. With thanks and credit to Step.com.

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Latitude and Longitude: Finding Locations on Planet Earth. With thanks and credit to Step.com

Typical Graph This is an example of a typical graph. It is made up of points that are connected by a line.

Typical Graph Y axis X axis Each point has two values: An ‘X’ value that runs along the horizontal ‘X’ axis and....... A ‘Y’ value that runs along the vertical ‘Y’ axis Each point is expressed as an X value and a Y value with the X value written first. For example... (4,7) and........... 7,5)

Typical Graph X Y (-X,+Y) (+X,-Y) (+X,+Y) (-X,-Y) Graphs may be divided into quadrants with the X and Y values being either positive (+) or negative (-) depending on the quadrant in which they are located. Now let’s apply the same principles to latitude and longitude.

On the map horizontal lines are lines of latitude and.... vertical lines are lines of longitude. The X axis is the equator and the Y axis which runs through Greenwich, England is the Prime Meridian. Equator Prime Meridian

The Equator divides the Earth into the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere. http://nationalatlas.gov/articles/mapping/IMAGES/latlong2.gif

Any location north of the equator is a NORTH LATITUDE

Any location south of the equator is a SOUTH LATITUDE

 The Prime Meridian divides the Earth into the Western Hemisphere and the Eastern Hemisphere. http://www.arcticice.org/images/long.gif

Any location west of the prime meridian is a WEST LONGITUDE

Any location east of the prime meridian is an EAST LONGITUDE

We can divide the Earth into quadrants: NE where all latitudes are NORTH and all longitudes are EAST.

We can divide the Earth into quadrants: SE where all latitudes are SOUTH and all longitudes are EAST.

We can divide the Earth into quadrants: SW where all latitudes are SOUTH and all longitudes are WEST.

We can divide the Earth into quadrants: NW where all latitudes are NORTH and all longitudes are WEST. Notice that EVERY point in the United States will have a NORTH latitude and a WEST longitude since we are in the NW quadrant.

90°S 90°N What is latitude? Latitude is the distance from the equator. It is expressed in degrees. The north pole is 90° N The south pole is 90° S And remember that the equator is 0° latitude. What is the maximum possible latitude on Earth? 90° is maximum. You could be at 90°N or 90°S but there is no greater latitude on Earth (or anywhere else) 0°0°

Latitude  Latitude is defined as the elevation of the location point above (or below) the equator.  The measurement is expressed in degrees, minutes, and seconds.  The equator is at 0° and the poles are at 90°. http://webhelp.esri.com/arcgisdesktop/9.2/published_images/LatLong%20from%20Globe%20Center.gif

Latitude  If the location point is north of the equator an N or + is added to the degrees.  If the point is to the south of the equator an S or – is added to the value. 52°N or +52° 24°S or -24°

Latitude  On the Earth we designate lines of equal latitude as parallels. http://www.lakelandsd.com/tutorial/latitude2.jpg

What is longitude? Longitude is the distance from the prime meridian. Just like latitude, longitude is measured in degrees. The prime meridian is 0° 0°0° And if you go half way around the world you will reach the 180° longitude line. 180° Understand that there aren’t two 180° lines. On this FLAT map it just looks that way. It’s the SAME line. What is the maximum possible longitude on Earth? 180° is the maximum possible longitude on Earth.

Longitude  Longitude is defined as the measurement of the location point east or west of the Prime Meridian  The value is also expressed in degrees, minutes, and seconds.

Longitude  If the point is located to the west of the Prime Meridian we add a W to the value.  If the point is located east of the Prime Meridian we add an E after the value 30°W 80°E

Longitude  On the Earth we designate lines of equal longitude as meridians.  The Prime Meridian has a value of 0° and no E or W. The longitude values increase up to 180° in both directions. http://www.lakelandsd.com/tutorial/latitude2.jpg

Each box on this map is 15°. With that in mind how can we identify specific locations (red dots)? Remember, write latitude first! What are the coordinates of location......A 60°N, 30°W What are the coordinates of location......B 15°S, 105°W What are the coordinates of location......C 75°S, 75°E But what about location D ? It’s in the middle of a box. What do we do now?

Some More Practice 1.30° N, 90° W 2.0°, 60° W 3.45° N, 0° 4.30° S, 30° E 5.60° N, 90° E

Here are some things to remember: > Latitude is written first and must always include N (north) or S (south) of the equator. > Longitude is written next and must always include E (east) or W (west) of the prime meridian. > As with anything else you learn you will get better with practice......... SO PRACTICE, PRACTICE, PRACTICE!

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