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Latitude and Longitude: Finding Locations on Planet Earth. With thanks and credit to Step.com

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Typical Graph This is an example of a typical graph. It is made up of points that are connected by a line.

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Typical Graph Y axis X axis Each point has two values: An ‘X’ value that runs along the horizontal ‘X’ axis and....... A ‘Y’ value that runs along the vertical ‘Y’ axis Each point is expressed as an X value and a Y value with the X value written first. For example... (4,7) and........... 7,5)

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Typical Graph X Y (-X,+Y) (+X,-Y) (+X,+Y) (-X,-Y) Graphs may be divided into quadrants with the X and Y values being either positive (+) or negative (-) depending on the quadrant in which they are located. Now let’s apply the same principles to latitude and longitude.

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On the map horizontal lines are lines of latitude and.... vertical lines are lines of longitude. The X axis is the equator and the Y axis which runs through Greenwich, England is the Prime Meridian. Equator Prime Meridian

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The Equator divides the Earth into the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere. http://nationalatlas.gov/articles/mapping/IMAGES/latlong2.gif

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Any location north of the equator is a NORTH LATITUDE

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Any location south of the equator is a SOUTH LATITUDE

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The Prime Meridian divides the Earth into the Western Hemisphere and the Eastern Hemisphere. http://www.arcticice.org/images/long.gif

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Any location west of the prime meridian is a WEST LONGITUDE

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Any location east of the prime meridian is an EAST LONGITUDE

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We can divide the Earth into quadrants: NE where all latitudes are NORTH and all longitudes are EAST.

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We can divide the Earth into quadrants: SE where all latitudes are SOUTH and all longitudes are EAST.

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We can divide the Earth into quadrants: SW where all latitudes are SOUTH and all longitudes are WEST.

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We can divide the Earth into quadrants: NW where all latitudes are NORTH and all longitudes are WEST. Notice that EVERY point in the United States will have a NORTH latitude and a WEST longitude since we are in the NW quadrant.

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90°S 90°N What is latitude? Latitude is the distance from the equator. It is expressed in degrees. The north pole is 90° N The south pole is 90° S And remember that the equator is 0° latitude. What is the maximum possible latitude on Earth? 90° is maximum. You could be at 90°N or 90°S but there is no greater latitude on Earth (or anywhere else) 0°0°

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Latitude Latitude is defined as the elevation of the location point above (or below) the equator. The measurement is expressed in degrees, minutes, and seconds. The equator is at 0° and the poles are at 90°. http://webhelp.esri.com/arcgisdesktop/9.2/published_images/LatLong%20from%20Globe%20Center.gif

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Latitude If the location point is north of the equator an N or + is added to the degrees. If the point is to the south of the equator an S or – is added to the value. 52°N or +52° 24°S or -24°

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Latitude On the Earth we designate lines of equal latitude as parallels. http://www.lakelandsd.com/tutorial/latitude2.jpg

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What is longitude? Longitude is the distance from the prime meridian. Just like latitude, longitude is measured in degrees. The prime meridian is 0° 0°0° And if you go half way around the world you will reach the 180° longitude line. 180° Understand that there aren’t two 180° lines. On this FLAT map it just looks that way. It’s the SAME line. What is the maximum possible longitude on Earth? 180° is the maximum possible longitude on Earth.

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Longitude Longitude is defined as the measurement of the location point east or west of the Prime Meridian The value is also expressed in degrees, minutes, and seconds.

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Longitude If the point is located to the west of the Prime Meridian we add a W to the value. If the point is located east of the Prime Meridian we add an E after the value 30°W 80°E

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Longitude On the Earth we designate lines of equal longitude as meridians. The Prime Meridian has a value of 0° and no E or W. The longitude values increase up to 180° in both directions. http://www.lakelandsd.com/tutorial/latitude2.jpg

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Each box on this map is 15°. With that in mind how can we identify specific locations (red dots)? Remember, write latitude first! What are the coordinates of location......A 60°N, 30°W What are the coordinates of location......B 15°S, 105°W What are the coordinates of location......C 75°S, 75°E But what about location D ? It’s in the middle of a box. What do we do now?

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Some More Practice 1.30° N, 90° W 2.0°, 60° W 3.45° N, 0° 4.30° S, 30° E 5.60° N, 90° E

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Here are some things to remember: > Latitude is written first and must always include N (north) or S (south) of the equator. > Longitude is written next and must always include E (east) or W (west) of the prime meridian. > As with anything else you learn you will get better with practice......... SO PRACTICE, PRACTICE, PRACTICE!

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