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Published byMarcia Davis Modified about 1 year ago

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A Typical Graph This is an example of a typical graph we are all familiar with. The graph is made up of different “points” with lines that connect the points.

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A Typical Graph Each point has two values indicating place: The “X” value that runs along the horizontal “X” axis The “Y” value that runs along the vertical “Y” axis Y axis X axis

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A Typical Graph X value is always stated first, followed by the Y value The “origin” is the point where the two axes intersect with a value of (0,0) (0,0) (3,8) Y X (9,5)

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Typical Graph A point can also have a negative (-) value Negative X values are to the left of the origin (0,0) Negative Y values are below the origin X Y (-X,+Y) (+X,-Y) (+X,+Y) (-X,-Y) (0,0)

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East West, North South on the Earth The X axis is the equator. The Y axis is the prime meridian that runs through Greenwich, England. Lat/Long are the two grid points by which one can locate any point on Earth. Y X

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East West, North South on the Earth Let each of the four quarters (quadrants) then be designated by North or South and East or West. N S EW

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East West, North South on the Earth The N tells us we’re north of the equator. The S tells us we’re south of the equator. The E tells us that we’re east of the prime meridian. The W tells us that we’re west of the prime meridian. (N, W) (N, E) (S, W) (S, E)

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East West, North South on the Earth All points in North America will have a North latitude and a West longitude because it is North of the equator and West of the prime meridian. (N, W) Prime Meridian

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East West, North South on the Earth What would be the latitude and longitude directions in Australia? Prime Meridian ? If you said South and East, you’re right!

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What is Latitude? Latitude is the distance from the equator along the Y axis. All points along the equator have a value of 0 degrees. North pole = 90°N South pole = 90°S All values are in stated in degrees. Y X 90°S 90°N

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What is Latitude? Each degree of latitude is divided into 60 minutes. Each minute is divided into 60 seconds. Y X 90°S 90°N This is also true of longitude.

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What is Latitude? For example, 40° 02’ 51’’N This is close to the latitude where you live. Y X 90°S 90°N

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And Longitude? Longitude is the distance from the prime meridian along the X axis. All points along the prime meridian have a value of 0 degrees longitude. Earth is divided into two parts, or hemi- spheres, of east and west longitude. Y X 180°W 180°E

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Meridians and Parallels? Earth is divided into 360 equal N-S slices (meridians) -180 west and 180 east of the prime meridian Earth is divided into 180 equal E-W slices (parallels) -90 north and 90 south of the equator Y X 180°W 180°E

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Meridians and Parallels? Meridians of longitude run N and S, but are used to measure E and W. Parallels of latitude run E and W, but are used to measure N and S

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What is our location? Central Peoria’s latitude and longitude are approximately: 40°, 44’, 24’’N 89°, 36’, 36’’W Y X 90°S 90°N

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So Where is (0,0)? The origin point (0,0) is where the equator intersects the prime meridian. Point (0,0) is off the western coast of Africa in the Atlantic Ocean.

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In which quadrants are the following latitudes and longitudes? 1. 41°N, 21°E 2. 37°N, 76°W 3. 72°S, 141°W 4. 7°S, 23°W 5. 15°N, 29°E 6. 34°S, 151°E AB C D

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Let’s see how well you did... 1. B 2. A 3. C 4. C 5. B 6. D

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Equator Latitude 0 o Latitude: (90 o N to 90 o S) Latitude 23½ o NorthTropic of Cancer Latitude 23½ o South Tropic of Capricorn Longitude 30 o East Longitude 60 o East Longitude 30 o West Longitude 60 o West Positioning on the Earth’s Surface East is the direction of rotation of the Earth North Pole South Pole 23½ o 66½ o 90 o st June 22 nd December 22 nd Sept 20 th March 30 o E 60 o E90 o E 90 o W 30 o W 60 o W Longitude 90 o East Longitude 90 o West Prime Meridian 0 o Longitude Longitude: (180 o E to 180 o W) Latitude and Longitude together enable the fixing of position on the Earth’s surface.

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Now you are ready to find some locations on a map!

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