2A Typical GraphThis is an example of a typical graph we are all familiar with.The graph is made up of different “points” with lines that connect the points.
3A Typical Graph Each point has two values indicating place: Y axisEach point has two values indicating place:The “X” value that runs along the horizontal “X” axisThe “Y” value that runs along the vertical “Y” axisX axis
4X value is always stated first, followed by the Y value A Typical GraphX value is always stated first, followed by the Y valueThe “origin” is the point where the two axes intersect with a value of (0,0)Y(3,8)(9,5)X(0,0)
5A point can also have a negative (-) value Typical GraphA point can also have a negative (-) valueNegative X values are to the left of the origin (0,0)Negative Y values are below the originY(-X,+Y)(+X,+Y)(0,0)X(-X,-Y)(+X,-Y)
6East West, North South on the Earth The X axis is the equator.The Y axis is the prime meridian that runs through Greenwich, England.Lat/Long are the two grid points by which one can locate any point on Earth.YX
7East West, North South on the Earth Let each of the four quarters (quadrants) then be designated by North or South and East or West.WES
8East West, North South on the Earth The N tells us we’re north of the equator. The S tells us we’re south of the equator.The E tells us that we’re east of the prime meridian. The W tells us that we’re west of the prime meridian.(N, W)(N, E)(S, W)(S, E)
9East West, North South on the Earth (N, W)All points in North America will have a North latitude and a West longitude because it is North of the equator and West of the prime meridian.Prime Meridian
10East West, North South on the Earth What would be the latitude and longitude directions in Australia??Prime MeridianIf you said South and East , you’re right!
11Latitude is the distance from the equator along the Y axis. All points along the equator have a value of 0 degrees.North pole = 90°NSouth pole = 90°SAll values are in stated in degrees.What is Latitude?90°NYX90°S
12This is also true of longitude. What is Latitude?90°NEach degree of latitude is divided into 60 minutes.Each minute is divided into 60 seconds.YX90°SThis is also true of longitude.
13This is close to the latitude where you live. What is Latitude?90°NFor example,40° 02’ 51’’NThis is close to the latitude where you live.YX90°S
14Longitude is the distance from the prime meridian along the X axis. And Longitude?Longitude is the distance from the prime meridian along the X axis.All points along the prime meridian have a value of 0 degrees longitude.Earth is divided into two parts, or hemi- spheres, of east and west longitude.YX180°W180°E
15Meridians and Parallels? Earth is divided into 360 equal N-S slices (meridians)180 west and 180 east of the prime meridianEarth is divided into 180 equal E-W slices (parallels)90 north and 90 south of the equatorYX180°W180°E
16Meridians and Parallels? Meridians of longitude run N and S, but are used to measure E and W.Parallels of latitude run E and W, but are used to measure N and S
17Central Peoria’s latitude and longitude are approximately: What is our location?90°NCentral Peoria’s latitude and longitude are approximately:40°, 44’, 24’’N89°, 36’, 36’’WYX90°S
18So Where is (0,0)?The origin point (0,0) is where the equator intersects the prime meridian.Point (0,0) is off the western coast of Africa in the Atlantic Ocean.
19In which quadrants are the following latitudes and longitudes? °N, 21°E°N, 76°W°S, 141°W°S, 23°W°N, 29°E°S, 151°EABDC
20Let’s see how well you did... 1. B2. A3. C4. C5. B6. D
22Positioning on the Earth’s Surface East is the direction of rotation of the EarthEquatorLatitude 0oLatitude: (90oN to 90oS)North PoleSouth PolePrime Meridian0o LongitudeLongitude: (180oE to 180oW)Longitude 60o WestLongitude 30o WestLongitude 60o East90oLongitude 30o East66½oLatitude 23½o NorthTropic of Cancer23½o21st June22nd December22nd Sept20th March90oW60oW30oW90oE30oE60oE23½o900Latitude 23½o SouthTropic of CapricornLongitude 90o WestLongitude 90oEastLatitude and Longitude together enable the fixing of position on the Earth’s surface.
23Now you are ready to find some locations on a map!