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Unnderstanding Longitude & Latitude

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A Typical Graph This is an example of a typical graph we are all familiar with. The graph is made up of different “points” with lines that connect the points.

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**A Typical Graph Each point has two values indicating place:**

Y axis Each point has two values indicating place: The “X” value that runs along the horizontal “X” axis The “Y” value that runs along the vertical “Y” axis X axis

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**X value is always stated first, followed by the Y value**

A Typical Graph X value is always stated first, followed by the Y value The “origin” is the point where the two axes intersect with a value of (0,0) Y (3,8) (9,5) X (0,0)

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**A point can also have a negative (-) value**

Typical Graph A point can also have a negative (-) value Negative X values are to the left of the origin (0,0) Negative Y values are below the origin Y (-X,+Y) (+X,+Y) (0,0) X (-X,-Y) (+X,-Y)

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**East West, North South on the Earth**

The X axis is the equator. The Y axis is the prime meridian that runs through Greenwich, England. Lat/Long are the two grid points by which one can locate any point on Earth. Y X

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**East West, North South on the Earth**

Let each of the four quarters (quadrants) then be designated by North or South and East or West. W E S

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**East West, North South on the Earth**

The N tells us we’re north of the equator. The S tells us we’re south of the equator. The E tells us that we’re east of the prime meridian. The W tells us that we’re west of the prime meridian. (N, W) (N, E) (S, W) (S, E)

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**East West, North South on the Earth**

(N, W) All points in North America will have a North latitude and a West longitude because it is North of the equator and West of the prime meridian. Prime Meridian

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**East West, North South on the Earth**

What would be the latitude and longitude directions in Australia? ? Prime Meridian If you said South and East , you’re right!

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**Latitude is the distance from the equator along the Y axis.**

All points along the equator have a value of 0 degrees. North pole = 90°N South pole = 90°S All values are in stated in degrees. What is Latitude? 90°N Y X 90°S

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**This is also true of longitude.**

What is Latitude? 90°N Each degree of latitude is divided into 60 minutes. Each minute is divided into 60 seconds. Y X 90°S This is also true of longitude.

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**This is close to the latitude where you live.**

What is Latitude? 90°N For example, 40° 02’ 51’’N This is close to the latitude where you live. Y X 90°S

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**Longitude is the distance from the prime meridian along the X axis.**

And Longitude? Longitude is the distance from the prime meridian along the X axis. All points along the prime meridian have a value of 0 degrees longitude. Earth is divided into two parts, or hemi- spheres, of east and west longitude. Y X 180°W 180°E

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**Meridians and Parallels?**

Earth is divided into 360 equal N-S slices (meridians) 180 west and 180 east of the prime meridian Earth is divided into 180 equal E-W slices (parallels) 90 north and 90 south of the equator Y X 180°W 180°E

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**Meridians and Parallels?**

Meridians of longitude run N and S, but are used to measure E and W. Parallels of latitude run E and W, but are used to measure N and S

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**Central Peoria’s latitude and longitude are approximately:**

What is our location? 90°N Central Peoria’s latitude and longitude are approximately: 40°, 44’, 24’’N 89°, 36’, 36’’W Y X 90°S

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So Where is (0,0)? The origin point (0,0) is where the equator intersects the prime meridian. Point (0,0) is off the western coast of Africa in the Atlantic Ocean.

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**In which quadrants are the following latitudes and longitudes?**

°N, 21°E °N, 76°W °S, 141°W °S, 23°W °N, 29°E °S, 151°E A B D C

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**Let’s see how well you did...**

1. B 2. A 3. C 4. C 5. B 6. D

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In Summary!

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**Positioning on the Earth’s Surface**

East is the direction of rotation of the Earth Equator Latitude 0o Latitude: (90oN to 90oS) North Pole South Pole Prime Meridian 0o Longitude Longitude: (180oE to 180oW) Longitude 60o West Longitude 30o West Longitude 60o East 90o Longitude 30o East 66½o Latitude 23½o North Tropic of Cancer 23½o 21st June 22nd December 22nd Sept 20th March 90oW 60oW 30oW 90oE 30oE 60oE 23½o 900 Latitude 23½o South Tropic of Capricorn Longitude 90o West Longitude 90oEast Latitude and Longitude together enable the fixing of position on the Earth’s surface.

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**Now you are ready to find some locations on a map!**

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