 #  This is an example of a typical graph with which we are all familiar.  The graph is made up of different “points” with lines that connect the points.

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 This is an example of a typical graph with which we are all familiar.  The graph is made up of different “points” with lines that connect the points.

 Each point has two values:  The “X” value that runs along the horizontal “X” axis  The “Y” value that runs along the vertical “Y” axis Y axis X axis

 X value is always stated first  Followed by the Y value  The “origin” is the point where the 2 axes intersect with a value of (0,0) (0,0) (3,8) Y X (9,5)

 A point can also have negative (-) values  Negative X values are to the left of the origin (0,0)  Negative Y values are below the origin X Y (-X,+Y) (+X,-Y) (+X,+Y) (-X,-Y) (0,0)

 Let the X axis be the Equator.  Let the Y axis be the Prime Meridian that runs through Greenwich outside of London.  Lat/Long are the 2 grid points by which you can locate any point on earth. Y X

 Let each of the four quarters then be designated by North or South and East or West. N S EW

 The N tells us we’re north of the Equator. The S tells us we’re south of the Equator.  The E tells us that we’re east of the Prime Meridian. The W tells us that we’re west of the Prime Meridian. (N, W) (N, E) (S, W) (S, E)

 That means all points in North America will have a North latitude and a West longitude because it is North of the Equator and West of the Prime Meridian. (N, W) Prime Meridian

 What would be the latitude and longitude directions in Australia? Prime Meridian ? If you said South and East, you’re right!

 Latitude is the distance from the equator along the Y axis.  All points along the equator have a value of 0 degrees latitude.  North pole = 90°N  South pole = 90°S  The earth is divided into two parts according to the equator, the northern hemisphere and the southern hemisphere latitude  Values are expressed in terms of degrees. Y X 90°S 90°N

 Each degree of latitude is divided into 60 minutes.  Each minute is divided into 60 seconds. Y X 90°S 90°N This is also true of longitude.

 For Example:  36°, 59’,44’’N  This is close to the latitude where you live. Y X 90°S 90°N

 Longitude is the distance from the prime meridian along the X axis.  All points along the prime meridian have a value of 0 degrees longitude.  The earth is divided into two parts according to the Prime Meridian, the eastern hemisphere and the western hemisphere longitude. Y X 180°W 180°E

 The earth is divided into 360 equal slices (meridians)  180 west and 180 east of the prime meridian Y X 180°W 180°E

 Glasgow Kentucky’s latitude and longitude is:  36°, 59’,44’’N  85°, 54’, 42’’W Y X 90°S 90°N

 The origin point (0,0) is where the equator intersects the prime meridian.  (0,0) is off the western coast of Africa in the Atlantic Ocean.

 1. 41°N, 21°E  2. 37°N, 76°W  3. 72°S, 141°W  4. 7°S, 23°W  5. 15°N, 29°E  6. 34°S, 151°E AB C D

 1. B  2. A  3. C  4. C  5. B  6. D

AB CD Hemispheres

 See if you can find those same latitude/longitude locations on a map!

Equator Latitude 0 o Latitude: (90 o N to 90 o S) Latitude 23½ o NorthTropic of Cancer Latitude 23½ o South Tropic of Capricorn Longitude 30 o East Longitude 60 o East Longitude 30 o West Longitude 60 o West Positioning on the Earth’s Surface East is the direction of rotation of the Earth North Pole South Pole 23½ o 66½ o 90 o 90 0 21 st June 22 nd December 22 nd Sept 20 th March 30 o E 60 o E90 o E 90 o W 30 o W 60 o W Longitude 90 o East Longitude 90 o West Prime Meridian 0 o Longitude Longitude: (180 o E to 180 o W) Latitude and Longitude together enable the fixing of position on the Earth’s surface.

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