Presentation on theme: "Reframing perceptions of the lecture from challenges to opportunities: Embedding active learning and formative assessment into the teaching of large classes."— Presentation transcript:
Reframing perceptions of the lecture from challenges to opportunities: Embedding active learning and formative assessment into the teaching of large classes Naomi Winstone & Lynne Millward School of Psychology University of Surrey Guildford, UK N.Winstone@surrey.ac.uk HEA STEM Conference Imperial College, London, April 2012
The challenge of the lecture Lectures were once useful; but now, when all can read, and books are so numerous, lectures are unecessary Samuel Johnson (1709-1784)
Formative assessment practice is essential if students are going to be able to construct understanding and integrate knowledge in order to later retrieve and apply it at appropriate times (McAlpine, 2004, p.125) McAlpine, L. (2004). Designing learning as well as teaching: A research-based model for instruction that emphasises learner practice. Active Learning in Higher Education, 5(2), 119-134.
Effective feedback Opportunity Means Motive Shute (2008) Shute, V. J. (2008). Focus on formative feedback. Review of Educational Research, 78, 153-189.
The FA challenge Yorke (2003) Formative assessment Formal lecturing Yorke, M. (2003). Formative assessment in higher education: Moves towards theory and the enhancement of pedagogic practice. Higher Education, 45(4), 477-501.
Reframing our perception of the lecture Active learning: examples –Social psychology: Leadership –Cognitive psychology: research role-play –Personality psychology: personality measurement Formative assessment: examples –60 second essay questions –Student-centred plenaries –Student-generated MCQs
Case study: active learning and formative assessment in personality theory Active learning and formative assessment Evaluation of student feedback –What was good about this module? Please say why- thematic analysis –Response rate: 84.3% 120 students 11 x 2-hour lectures Summative assessments: essay and MCQ exam
Experiences of Active learning Engagement When we are part of the process, the material comes alive. Psychology is about people, so we need to experience it for ourselves! [active learning] stimulates independent thinking, and show the relevance of course material. Lectures were EXCITING! Students are interactively involved in what we are learning, through looking at ourselves I was made genuinely interested in material I would otherwise not have enjoyed
Experiences of active learning Retention of material Tasks were helpful for understanding and remembering concepts Tasks are relevant and help learning The opportunities to interact helped me to learn
Experiences of FA Personal development Feedback and opportunities for advice helps learning and personal growth Reviews and feedback have helped me to develop more effective learning strategies
Experiences of FA Consolidation of understanding Getting feedback in the lecture helps you to connect it with what you have been learning, which is still fresh, so you can integrate it better the opportunity to test my understanding means that the material glues together and when I leave its still in place!
Perspectives of lecturers Advantages for students: engagement and motivation –They can have an epiphany moment where they suddenly get something- this comes from personal experience with it –Freedom and autonomy to learn, sense of power, more interesting from their perspective, sparks their curiosity Advantages for staff: engagement and perspective- taking –Using active techniques keeps you refreshed- thinking of new ways to incorporate student activity is a constantly evolving process –Makes it easy for lecturers to know students, their interests, their levels of knowledge and understanding
Discussion Active learning –Students involved as a cohort- promotes collaborative learning environment Formative assessment –Not in competition with the large lecture –Motive, means and opportunity?
Future directions Look at effects beyond student ratings Chart long-term effects Consider individual differences Socialisation processes –The first session of any course creates a norm for the rest of the module. If they sit and listen in the first session, they will expect to sit and listen for the whole course. If they contribute actively in the first session, this will become their expectation. You have to start as you mean to go on