2 Contents Definitions of Paradigm and Pedagogy. Paradigm SHIFT. The Lecture model.What research tell us?Learning Paradigm.What is Student Centered Learning ?Examples of SCL.Role of Teaching Staff.Role of Students.Benefits VS Challenges of SCL implementations.THINK – PAIR – SHARE.
3 Objectives By the end of this presentation you should be able to: Define SCL.Describe the benefits and challenges of SCL.Learn few abilities that help you make a SCL class.
4 Did you know that !PEDAGOGY is …the method and practice of teaching, especially as an academic subject or theoretical concept.PARADIGM is …. a theory or a group of ideas about how something should be done, made, or thought about
5 Paradigm Shift Old – Instruction Paradigm New – Learning Paradigm An educational institution exists to provide instruction.New – Learning ParadigmAn educational institution exists to produce learning.
6 Instruction ParadigmMistakes the means for an end – takes the means or method, called “instruction” or “teaching”, and makes it the end purpose.Most common teaching method used is LECTUREDoes this method promote student learning?Think back about your own learning – how did you learn?What do you remember best?Means vs End – this is like saying:The purpose of General Motors is to operate assembly linesPurpose of medical care is to fill hospital beds
7 The Lecture ModelEconomical – Able to cover large amounts of information in a short period of timeTeachers are in the active role and students are in a passive, receptive roleStudents are listeners NOT learners
9 What research tells us ?Most people only remember 20% of what they hear.The longer the lecture, less of the information ended up in the students’ notes.Evidence indicates that students learn and retain more information when they are actively involved in the learning process
10 Learning ParadigmUses student-centered/active learning techniques to get students involved in the learning processFocuses on the student’s needs, abilities, interests, and learning stylesAcknowledges student voice as central to the learning experience for every learnerRequires students to be active, responsible participants in the learning process
11 What is student-centered/active learning? Any well-structured, teacher-guided, student-centered activity that “substantially involves students with the course content through talking and listening, writing, reading and reflecting.”Learning is most meaningful when topics are relevant to the students’ lives, needs and interests.
13 What is student-centered/active learning? The students has to be engaged in higher order thinking tasks such as analysis, problem-solving, synthesis, and evaluation.These activities allow students to apply what they have learned early on in the academic process and/or give them a context/application for new material.
14 Instructional activities should involve students in doing things and thinking about what they are doing.Students are not just memorizing information, but they are allowed to work with and use the information alone or with peers.Their diverse thoughts and perspectives are a necessary input to every class.Learners are treated as co-creators in the learning process.
16 Research on Interactive Learning 1997 study compared pre- and post-course test results for 6000 high school and college science courses.Findings showed significantly more improvement in students knowledge that used interactive-engagement methods than those that did not.Classes that don’t use interactive-engagement methods still allow students to ask questions and still involve asking individual students questions.Why isn’t that enough?The problem is that they involve only one student at a time (often a small set of students over and over again( and that students rearely ask questions in classPassive students will not check to see if they understand the material.
17 Research on Interactive Learning 1999 study on the effect of college lectures reported:The longer the lecture, the less of the material ended up in the students’ notes.Interactive classes commonly involve breaking up the lectures into multiple short lectures with a higher percentage of material being retained from each.Interactive classes included a short, interactive activity between the short lecturesIn interactive lecture formats, students remembered more of the lecture material directly after the class and 12 days later than the control class that heard the same lecture without the interactive breaks.
19 Role of FacultyOLDNEWFaculty as disciplinary experts who impart knowledge through lectureFaculty as Designers of learning environments applying best teaching methodsActor on stageCoach interacting with a teamDelivering a lectureDesigning and playing a team gameA coach not only instructs football players, for example, but also designs football practices and the game plan; he participates in the game itself by sending inplays and making other decision.
20 Role of the StudentMoves from the role of note taker to active participant in the learning processAllows students to take control over their learning and, therefore, forces them to take more responsibility in the classroom
21 Benefits of Student-Centered Learning Permits opportunities to connect the content to real lifeProvides opportunities for higher order thinking as opposed to passive listeningPromotes greater student-faculty and student-student interactionIncreases student retentionStudents can provide real life examples of the content being discussed, theus increasing the relevancy of the learning.Reinforces listening to others and gives opportunity for immediate feedback and adjustment of thought. Students talking together provide for input and listening. Students have to assess the thoughts/ideas of peers, determine whether they “fit” their own, whether they disagree, or partially agree. Students have an opportunity to speak their ideas/thoughts for better formulation.Students assist each other in understanding material/content assisting students to broaden their perspectives on issues. Faculty move from group to group, listen and add comments. For some students this is he only personalization with a professor that ever occurs.Students are provided opportunities to think about, to talk about, and process information. Allows students to make sense of what they hear before attempting to “take in” even more information.Student Retention - Students who teach and tutor each other learn more about each other and how to better communicate information to others.Faculty have opportunities to observe actual processing of information, seeing the results of group projects or field experience. The applies projects indicate true knowledge.Teachers use a variety of teaching methods taking risks in their classrooms to try new things. Students may use a variety of approaches rather the typical paper in presenting projects and activities. For all involved results are often well beyond initial expectations.
22 Benefits of Student-Centered Learning 5. Provides for improvement of social interaction skills, greater acceptance of others, and a greater sense of “community” in the class6. Encourages alternative forms of assessment7. Encourages innovation in both teaching and student involvement
23 Challenges to Implementing a Paradigm Shift Lack of confidence in trying new methodsFear loss of content coverageLoss of control over the classTrying new methods means a move away from a comfort zone and even assuming some responsibility when students are NOT learning what is expected.The age old problem of amount of material covered versus depth of understanding rears its head. Group interaction may take more time.When a teacher lecture, s/he maintains control over what is covered in a class. Some even post lecture notes to guarantee coverageCurrent textbooks seldom provide ideas on how to use active or collaborative approaches, so the professor has to prepare materials for groups. Some textbooks offer questions at the end of chapters; these might be a starting point for small groups discussion.Some faculty want and need to be the center of attention. The class is their theater.Most faculty are not trained in a variety of pedagogies – therefore they teach they way they were taught – Pedagogy refers to strategies of instruction or a style of instruction.
24 Challenges to Implementing a Paradigm Shift 4. Lack of prepared materials for use in the class 5. The ego of the professor 6. Lack of background or training in the use of active learning approaches
26 Examples of Student-Centered Learning Activities
27 THINK – PAIR – SHAREBegin by saying: “It’s your turn. Look at your neighbor – the person sitting to the left or right of you. Make sure no one is left out. Nudge your neighbor and tell him/her the most important fact you’ve just heard in the last 10 – 20 minutes. Find out what your neighbor thinks is the most important fact. You have 1 minute to talk to each other.”When the minute is up, resume your lecture.
28 Variations of Pair Share Share one thing you just learned;Share one question you still have;State three things you now know that you didn’t now before;Ask your neighbor a question about the topic and see if he/she can answer it;Tell your neighbor how you can use the information you just learned.
29 PASS THAT QUESTIONGet ALL your learners involved in creating and answering questions.Before beginning, give each learner a blank index card. Tell them you will give them direction at some point during your presentation of what to do with it.Did you know that, when questioning techniques are included in a lecture, the retention of information skyrockets?This doesn’t mean that you ask: “Are there any questions?” and then, when no one says anything, you continue your presentation.
30 In Conclusion…“Only as you begin to experiment with the new language will you realize just how entrenched and invisible the old paradigm is. But, as you and your faculty begin to speak the new language, you will then also begin to think and act out of the new paradigm.”
31 ReferencesBarr, R. and Tagg, J. (1995). “From Teaching to Learning: A New Paradigm for Undergraduate Education,” Change. November/December, ppMcCombs, B. and Whistler, J.S. (1997). The Learner-Centered Classroom and School: Strategies for Increasing Student motivation and Achievement. San Francisco: Josey-Bass Publishers