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Organic Compounds: Biomolecules aka: Carbon Compounds.

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Presentation on theme: "Organic Compounds: Biomolecules aka: Carbon Compounds."— Presentation transcript:

1 Organic Compounds: Biomolecules aka: Carbon Compounds

2 All Organic Compounds (Biomolecules) contain the element Carbon! The Chemistry of Carbon Organic chemistry is the study of all compounds that contain bonds between carbon atoms. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

3 Macromolecules Macromolecules are formed by a process known as polymerization. Polymerization is the process of converting monomers into polymers. Monomers – building blocks of more complex molecules Polymers –many monomers

4 Four groups of organic compounds found in all living things are: carbohydrates lipids nucleic acids proteins

5 Carbohydrates – C, H, O What is the function of carbohydrates? Source of Energy Quick energy

6 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, the ratio of hydrogen atoms to oxygen atoms is 2:1 (like water) H:O is 2:1

7 Carbohydrates Different sizes of carbohydrates: *Monosaccharides – single sugars ex. Glucose *the most common sugar C 6 H 12 O 6 galactose and fructose * Disaccharides – two single sugars joined ex. Lactose & sucrose * Polysaccharides – 3 or more single sugars joined ex. Cellulose (in plant cells) Starch Glycogen (animal starch)

8 Starches and sugars are examples of carbohydrates that are used by living things as a source of energy. Glucose Starch Examples: Cellulose Starch Glycogen

9 Lipids – C, H, O many more carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms compared to oxygen atoms Lipids are generally not soluble in water. The common categories of lipids are: fats oils waxes Steroids Cholesterol Waterproof coverings Cell membrane – lipid bilayer

10 Lipids Function: store energy Long term energy storage Some lipids are important parts of biological membranes (cell membrane) and waterproof coverings (cuticle on plants) Monomers: Fat – consist of glycerol + 3 fatty acids

11 Lipids

12 Proteins – C, H, O, N sometimes S, P  Held by Peptide bonds  Monomers of molecules called amino acids.

13 General formula for an amino acid -NH 2 is amino group -COOH is carboxyl Amino Acids: 20 common amino acids

14 Polymers of proteins Polypeptide – chains of amino acids joined by peptide bonds

15 Some functions of proteins: Enzymes- Control rate of reactions  Enzymes are biological catalyst Used to form bones and muscles Transport & Communication: moves small molecules into or out of cells Help to fight disease (defense) – antibodies

16 Examples of Proteins: Amino Acids like alanine (end in –ine) Enzymes (end in –ase) Blood – hemoglobin Skin, ligaments, tendons, bones, hair, muscle Antibodies

17 Dehydration Synthesis Removal of water when two simpler substances join together

18 Hydrolysis Adding water to break apart a compound

19 Nucleic Acids – C, H, O, N, P Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids are polymers assembled from individual monomers known as nucleotides.

20 Nucleic Acids: Monomers Nucleotides consist of three parts: a 5-carbon sugar a phosphate group a nitrogenous base

21 Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information. *Genetic Blueprint* Examples and Polymers: ribonucleic acid (RNA) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

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