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The Biosphere Chapter 3.

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Presentation on theme: "The Biosphere Chapter 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Biosphere Chapter 3

2 Biotic = living Abiotic = non-living
Plants, animals, bacteria, fungus, etc… Abiotic = non-living Rocks, water, air, temperature, sunlight, dirt, etc..


4 3-1 What is Ecology? Ecology = scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment The biosphere contains the combined portions of the planet in which all of life exists, including land, water, and air, or atmosphere. 8 kilometers above Earth's surface to as far as 11 kilometers below the surface of the ocean.


6 Levels of Organization
Individual = a single organism of a species (a species is a group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring) Population = groups of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area. Community = groups of different populations that live together in a defined area.

7 An ecosystem is a collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving, or physical, environment. A biome is a group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities. A biosphere = highest level = all the biomes combined


9 3–2 Energy Flow Autotroph (Producer) = organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds Photoautotrophs (photosynthesis) Plants, protists Chemoautotrophs (chemosynthesis) bacteria


11 Consumers Heterotrophs (consumers) = Organisms that rely on other organisms for their energy and food supply Types of consumers: Herbivores Carnivores Omnivores Detritivores Decomposers


13 Feeding Relationships
from the sun or inorganic compounds  autotrophs (producers)  various heterotrophs (consumers)

14 Food Chains  a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten


16 Food Webs  network of complex interactions formed by the feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem



19 Trophic Levels  step in a food chain or food web

20 Energy Pyramids Biomass Pyramids Pyramids of Numbers
Ecological Pyramids a diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or food web There are 3 different kinds of pyramids: Energy Pyramids Biomass Pyramids Pyramids of Numbers

21 Energy Pyramid  Shows the relative amounts of energy available at each trophic level. Organisms store about 10% of this energy; 90% is used up in life processes Much energy is lost as heat. Therefore, usually 4-6 levels in an energy pyramid.


23 Biomass Pyramid Represents the amount of living organic matter at each trophic level. grams of organic matter per unit area represents the amount of potential food


25 Pyramid of Numbers  Shows the relative number of individual organisms at each trophic level.


27 Water Cycle


29 The Carbon Cycle

30 The Nitrogen Cycle

31 The Phosphorus Cycle

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