Presentation on theme: "Ecology. Ecology - the study of interactions among organisms and between the organisms and their environment. These interactions occur in the biosphere."— Presentation transcript:
Ecology - the study of interactions among organisms and between the organisms and their environment. These interactions occur in the biosphere - includes everything between 8km above Earth to 11km below the surface of the ocean. This is the largest group/level.
The Levels of Organization in the Biosphere Biosphere Biome Ecosystem Community Population Individual Biome - group of ecosystems that have the same climate and dominant communities. Example - Temperate deciduous forest. Ecosystem - all organisms and all physical factors in the environment that live in a particular place at a particular time. Example- All animals, plants, water, and soil.
The Levels of Organization in the Biosphere continues Community - groups of populations that live together in an area. Example - Field mice and rats in the forest. Population - groups of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area. Example - Field mice, rats Species - groups of organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring. Example - Field mice.
Interactions Interactions between a community of organisms and the environment are give and take relationships. Take - materials and energy needed for life. Give - materials and energy back to the environment.
Feeding Organisms that use the energy of the sun directly though photosynthesis are called producers or autotrophs. Organisms that eat other organisms for energy are consumers or heterotrophs.
Types of Consumers Primary consumers eat producers. (Cow eats grass) aka herbivores Secondary consumers eat other consumers. (Tiger eats antelope) Carnivores - eat only animals (meat eaters) Herbivores - eat only plants Omnivores - eat both animals (meat), plants, and/or algae. Decomposers - (also know as detritivores/saprophytes) - obtain energy by breaking down remains of dead plants, animals, and other matter. Scavenger - feed on bodies of dead animals.
Food Chains and Food Webs Food Chains and Food Webs – show the feeding relationships and the movement of energy from organism to organism.
Food Chains Food Chain - a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten.
Food Web Food Web - a network of complex interactions between food chains in an ecosystem. The arrows point to the organism that is doing the eating. This shows the direction of energy flow.
Ecological Pyramid Each step in a food chain or food web represents a feeding step or trophic level. These levels are represent by a pyramid. As you go up the trophic (feeding) levels: Available energy decreases Biomass generally decreases Numbers of organisms decrease 90% of the Energy is lost at every step. Only 10% is transferred up each trophic level.
Factors That Influence Ecosystems Biotic factors - living factors that are a part of an ecosystem. Animals Plants Fungi Bacteria Protists Abiotic factors - non-living factors that are a part of an ecosystem. Temperature Precipitation Nutrient availability Wind Humidity Soil type
Habitat and Niche An organism’s habitat is its address or HOME and its niche is the JOB it holds. (A lily pad’s habitat is the pond and its niche is a producer)