Presentation on theme: "Acids & Bases Chapter 10.2. Chapter 10 Chemical Compounds Ionic Compounds Formed by oppositely charged ions Metal and nonmetal Properties Brittle."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 10 Chemical Compounds Ionic Compounds Formed by oppositely charged ions Metal and nonmetal Properties Brittle Form crystal lattice High melting point Many dissolve easily in water and can conduct electricity Covalent Compounds Formed by sharing electrons between atoms Nonmetals only Properties Most do not dissolve in water and will not conduct electricity Low melting points Weaker bonds than ionic
What is an Acid? Acid: Any compound that increases the number of hydronium ions (H+) when dissolved in water. Acid solutions usually taste sour. Lemons & Limes – Citric Acid Vinegar – Acetic Acid Sour Candy – Citric Acid
Properties of Acids 1.Produced Hydrogen Ions (H+) When added to water, acids dissolve and produce H+ ions. Each H + attaches to a water molecule forming a Hydronium ion (H 3 O + ) 2.Conduct Electricity 3.Corrosive Destroy body tissue, clothing, or even metal. May be poisonous. 4.Taste Sour 5.Changes Indicators to Red, Pink, or Yellow
Uses of Acid Sulfuric Acid: (H 2 SO 4) Used in making paper, metals, paint, fertilizers, and car batteries. Nitric Acid: (HNO 3 ) Used to make fertilizers, rubber, and plastic. Hydrochloric Acid: (HCl) Used to digest food in the stomach, used to kill algae in swimming pools. Citric Acid: (C 6 H 7 O 6 ) Sour taste in citrus fruits (oranges, lemons, and limes.) Ascorbic Acid: (C 6 H 8 O 6 ) Vitamin C. Carbonic Acid: (H 2 CO 3 ) Used in carbonated beverages (soda).
What is a Base? Base: Any compound that increases the number of hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water. Base solutions usually taste bitter Base solutions usually feel slippery (soap solutions).
Properties of Bases 1.Produces Hydroxide Ions (OH-) When added to water, bases dissolve and produce OH- ions. 2.Conduct Electricity 3.Corrosive 4.Taste Bitter 5.Feel slippery 6.Change Indicators to Blue H O
Uses of Bases Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH): Used to make paper and soap Calcium Hydroxide (Ca(OH) 2 ) : Used in cement, mortar, and plaster. Ammonia (NH 3 ): Used in household cleaners and to make fertilizers. Magnesium Hydroxide Mg(OH) 2 : Used in antacids.
Strong vs. Weak ACIDS Strong Acids: All of the molecules break apart to produce hydrogen ions (H+). Ex: Sulfuric Acid, Nitric Acid, Hydrochloric Acid Weak Acids: Only a few of the molecules break apart to produce hydrogen ions. Ex: Acetic Acid (vinegar), Citric Acid, and Carbonic Acid. BASES Strong Bases: All of the molecules break apart to produce hydroxide ions (OH-). Ex: Sodium Hydroxide, Calcium Hydroxide, Weak Bases: Only a few of the molecules break apart to produce hydroxide ions (OH-). Ex: Ammonia, Magnesium Hydroxide.
The pH Scale Used to measure how strong an acid or base is. Scale ranges from 0-14 Acids: pH less than 7. Bases: pH greater than 7. Neutral: pH = 7 0 7 14ACIDBASE Strong Acid Strong Base