Presentation on theme: "Acids and Bases Hydrochloric Acid Sodium Hydroxide."— Presentation transcript:
1 Acids and BasesHydrochloric AcidSodium Hydroxide
2 Acids and BasesWhen we think of acids and bases we tend to think of science labs and chemicals…but did you knowAcids cause:Lemons to be sourAcid rain to eat away at sculpturesFramed paintings to be damagedCavities in your teethFood to digest in your stomachAnts and bees use it to sting
5 Properties of Acids and Bases turn blue litmus redtaste sourAcids corrode metalspositively charged hydrogen ions (H+)Basesturn red litmus bluetaste bitterNegatively charged hydroxide ions (OH–)Feel slipperyMost hand soaps and drain cleaners are basesStrong bases are caustic
6 Understanding the pH Scale pH stands for (presence of Hydrogen)Numbered from 0 to 14.The lower the pH number – the higher AcidThat means more Hydrogen Ions (H+)The higher the pH - the higher the BaseThat means less Hydrogen Ions (H+)
8 ElectrolytesMixture of chemicals that use H+ ions to conduct an electrical current.Fluid that regulates the flow of nutrients into and waste products out of cells.Where to find ElectrolytesCar batteryLemonPickle
9 Several Types of Acids Hydrochloric Acid. Acetic Acid Citric Acid Stomach acid - has the sour taste of acid.Acetic AcidAn ingredient in vinegar.Citric AcidCitrus fruits such as lemons, grapefruit, oranges, and limes have citric acid in the juice.Lactic AcidSour milk, sour cream, yogurt, and cottage cheese have lactic acid.
10 Strong Acids Strong Acids Nitric acid (HNO3) Hydrochloric acid (HCl) Sulfuric acid (H2SO4)Strong Acidsare acids that has many hydrogen ions (many H+).
11 Weak Acids Weak acids Examples Are acids that have fewer hydrogen ions (fewer H+).Examplesacetic acidboric acidsea-water, in plants and especially in fruitscarbonic acidFound in our bloodcitric acid
12 Properties of Bases Poisonous and can cause severe burns Turn red litmustaste bitterNegatively charged hydroxide ions (OH–)Feel slipperyBases neutralize acidsPoisonous and can cause severe burnsStrong Bases are Caustic.
13 Some Common Bases Ammonia Calcium hydroxide Sodium hydroxide The most widely used baseUsed in household cleaning materialsUsed as fertilizerCalcium hydroxideUsed to make mortar and plasterUsed to help neutralize acid soilSodium hydroxideOne of the strongest basesUsed in oven cleaners and drain cleaners
14 Strong Bases Strong bases Examples Are bases that produce many hydroxide ions (OH-) when it is dissolved in water.Are CausticExamplesLithium hydroxide (LiOH)Sodium hydroxide (NaOH)Potassium hydroxide (KOH)
15 Weak Bases Examples Weak bases Aluminum hydroxide Are bases that produce few hydroxide ions (OH-) when it is dissolved in water..ExamplesAluminum hydroxide
16 Quiz - Acids and Bases Please list two properties of Acids. Please list two properties of Bases.True or False A strong Acid has many OH-Please name one type of AcidWhy should you wear gloves when using strong Bases?