Presentation on theme: "Weekly Warm Up temperature T or F: Solubility of solids are affected by pressure. The solubility of a gas is affected by ___________ AND ________."— Presentation transcript:
Weekly Warm Up temperature T or F: Solubility of solids are affected by pressure. The solubility of a gas is affected by ___________ AND ________. The _____ the temperature of the solvent, the ______ the solubility of the gas. Give an Example. pressure lower higher Cola going flat when hot.
Chapter 22: Acids, Bases & Salts Part 1: Acids & Bases They are everywhere.. In your food In your house EVEN IN YOU!!!!! http://www.helpteaching.com/questions/Acids_and_Bases
What is an Acid? It comes from the Latin word acidus that means “_____" or “____". An acid is a solution that has an excess of ________ ions. ___ HCl H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) The _____ the [H + ], the _____ acidic the solution. hydrogen sharpsour (H + ) highermore
Properties of an Acid Tastes ____ Conduct ________ ________, which means they break down certain substances. Many acids can ______ fabric, skin, and paper Some acids react _______ with metals Turns blue litmus paper ____. sour electricity Corrosive damage strongly red
Types & Uses of Acids Acetic Acid = Vinegar Citric Acid = Citrus: lemons, limes, & oranges. Candies: lemonhead & sour patch. Hydrochloric Acid = gastric juices Ascorbic Acid = Vitamin C which your body needs to function. Sulfuric Acid = used in the production of fertilizers, steel, paints, plastics, & car batteries. Nitric Acid = fertilizers & explosives (TNT) Carbonic Acid = carbonated drinks, cave formation, and acid rain
Base What is a Base? A base is a solution that has an excess of _________ ions. ____ NaOH in H 2 O Na + (aq) + OH - (aq) Another word for base is ______. Many bases are _____ compounds. Bases are any substances that can _______ hydrogen ions (H + ) from acids even if it doesn’t have OH. Therefore, bases are able to __________ acids. hydroxide (OH - ) alkali accept ionic neutralize
Base Properties of a Base Feel _____, _______ Taste _____, ______ ________ Can conduct ________. (Ex: _______ batteries.) Do not react with ______. Turns red litmus paper _____. slippery bitter Corrosive electricity Alkaline metals blue chalky soapy
Bases Uses of Bases soaps ammonia blood NOTE: NEVER mix Ammonia with Sodium hydroxide (bleach). The toxic gas produced damages _____ tissue and can be ______. NaOH-sodium hydroxide (LYE) soaps, drain cleaner, bleach, paper Mg (OH) 2 -magnesium hydroxide - antacids Al(OH) 3 -aluminum hydroxide - antacids, deodorants, water purification NH 4 OH-ammonium hydroxide - “ammonia”, household cleaner* Bases give ______, ________, and many other cleaning products some of their useful properties. Your _____ is a slightly basic solution. lung lethal
pH is an abbreviation for "power of __________" where "p" is short for the German word for power, potenz and H is the element symbol for hydrogen. It is used to measure how _____ or ______a solution is ______ paper is used as the pH indicator. It is a logarithmic scale that runs from _______ to ___. pH scale…each step is ____ times stronger or weaker than the one next to it! A solution with a pH of 7 is _______. For example, a pH of 3 is 10 times more acidic than a pH of 4 and 100 times (10 times 10) more acidic than a pH value of 5.than a pH of 4 What is pH? acidicbasic zero (0) 14 neutral hydrogen litmus 10
pH Scale ____ _____ has a pH of 7. Therefore it is _______. ______ solutions = pH _____ than 7. o Hydrochloric acid is very acidic. _____ solutions = pH _______ than 7. o Drain cleaner is very basic. Pure water Acidic Basic greater less neutral
Weekly Warm Up B represents a(n) ______ solution. The pH scale is a logarithmic scale that runs from ___ to ___. A solution with a pH of 2 is ____ times more ______ than a solution with a pH of 5.basic 0 14 1000 acidic
Unit Vocabulary Any process by which electrically neutral atoms or molecules are converted to electrically charged atoms or molecules (aka. ions) is called ________. Ions capable of conducting an electric current are referred to as __________. A process in which an ionic compound separates into its positive and negative ions in a solution is describes __________. ___________ is a reaction between acid and base forming a type of ____ and _____. o NaOH + HCl NaCl + HOH electrolytes ionization saltwater Neutralization dissociation
Acidic Solution: When an acid interacts with water the H + ions form _________ ions (H 3 O + ). o This is an example of __________. o The _____ hydronium ions the ________ the acid. Forming Solutions hydronium more stronger ionization
Basic Solution: NaOH in water Na + + OH - o (more hydroxide ions, more basic) NH 3 + H 2 0 NH 4 + + OH - o ammonia gas + water yields ammonium and hydroxide ions Forming Solutions
What is a Buffer? A buffer is an aqueous solution that has a highly stable pH. If you add acid or base to a buffered solution, its pH will not change significantly. aqueous solutionpHacidbase
pH Scale A change of 1 pH unit represents a tenfold change in the acidity of the solution. For example, if one solution has a pH of 1 and a second solution has a pH of 2, the first solution is not twice as acidic as the second— it is ten times more acidic.
Acid – Base Reactions A reaction between an acid and a base is called neutralization. An acid-base mixture is not as acidic or basic as the individual starting solutions.
Acid – Base reactions Each salt listed in this table can be formed by the reaction between an acid and a base.
Label as either true (T) or false (F): _____ 1.Acids will not conduct electricity. _____ 2.Bases will conduct electricity. _____ 3.Acids taste bitter. _____ 4.Bases will turn red litmus paper blue. _____ 5.Acids react with some metals to produce hydrogen gas. _____ 6.Acids will turn phenolphthalein (PHTH) indicator pink. _____ 7.An indicator is a substance which changes colors in acids and bases. _____ 8.Acids have a pH greater that 7. _____ 9.Bases feel slippery. _____ 10.The pH of pure water is 7. Weekly Warm Up T T T F F T T F F T Sour Both conduct electricity.