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A CCD-based vertex detector Status report from the LCFI collaboration

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Presentation on theme: "A CCD-based vertex detector Status report from the LCFI collaboration"— Presentation transcript:

1 A CCD-based vertex detector Status report from the LCFI collaboration
Konstantin Stefanov RAL Overview of the LCFI programme Conceptual design of the vertex detector for the future LC Detector R&D program at LCFI Development of very fast CCDs and readout electronics Experimental studies on a commercial high speed CCD Thin ladder programme for mechanical support of the sensors Summary

2 LCFI Overview Work in two directions:
Simulation of CCD-based vertex detector performance using physics processes at the LC (Chris Damerell’s talk) Detector R&D: development of fast CCDs for the vertex detector and their support structure Physics studies are continuing, but we know that: Many particles in jets with low momentum (  1 GeV/c) even at high collision energy, multiple scattering still dominant; Very efficient and pure b and c tagging needed; Vertex charge measurement important.

3 Pushing the technology hard…
Detector Parameters Impact parameter resolution: , [m] Thin detector (< 0.1% X0) for low error from multiple scattering Close to the interaction point for reduced extrapolation error Readout time:  8 ms for NLC/JLC (read between trains) 50 s for TESLA (read the inner CCD layer 20 times during the train) Two track separation  40 m, small pixel size  20 m  20 m; Large polar angle coverage; Stand-alone tracking: 4 or 5 layers of sensors; Radiation hard. Pushing the technology hard…

4 Conceptual design 5 layers at radii 15, 26 37, 48 and 60 mm;
Gas cooled; Low mass, high precision mechanics; Encased in a low mass foam cryostat; Minimum number of external connections (power + few optical fibres).

5 CCD development Large area, high speed CCD – follows the ideas of the SLD VXD3 design Pixel size: 20 m square Inner layer CCDs: 10013 mm2 Outer layers: 2 CCDs with size 12522 mm2 120 CCDs, 799106 pixels total Readout time  8 ms in principle sufficient for NLC/JLC For TESLA: 50 s readout time for inner layer CCDs: 50 Mpix/s from EACH CCD column Future LC requires different concept for fast readout – Column Parallel CCD (CPCCD) Natural and elegant development of CCD technology

6 Column parallel CCD Serial register is omitted
Maximum possible speed from a CCD (tens of Gpix/s) Image section (high capacitance) is clocked at high frequency Each column has its own amplifier and ADC – requires readout chip “Classic CCD” Readout time  NM/Fout N M N+1 Column Parallel CCD Readout time = (N+1)/Fout

7 List of issues to be solved:
CCD ladder end List of issues to be solved: Bump bonding assembly between thinned CPCCD and readout chip Driving the CPCCD with high frequency low voltage clocks; Driver design; Low inductance connections and layout; Clock and digital feedthrough; Cooling the ladder end.

8 CCD bump-bonded to custom CMOS readout chip with:
Amplifier and ADC per column Correlated Double Sampling for low noise Gain equalisation between columns Pixel threshold Variable size cluster finding algorithm Data sparsification Memory and I/O interface

9 Column Parallel CCD Important aspects of CPCCD:
Quality of 50 MHz clocks over the entire device (area = 13 cm2): All clock paths have to be studied and optimised Power dissipation: Pulsed power if necessary Low clock amplitudes Large capacitive load (normally  2-3nF/cm2) Feedthrough effects: 2-phase drive with sine clocks – natural choice because of symmetry and low harmonics Ground currents and capacitive feedthrough largely cancel Most of these issues are being studied by simulation

10 Charge packet in a 2-phase CCD
Device simulations Charge packet in a 2-phase CCD Using ISE-TCAD software and SPICE models 2D models for: potential profiles; low voltage charge transfer feedthrough studies 3-D models being used as well SPICE simulations of clock propagation

11 Device simulations Extensive simulation work done at RAL;
2D model for standard 2 phase CCD developed; Electric fields and charge transfer times can be calculated; In simulation 50 MHz transfer achieved with 1.5 Vpp clocks – to be compared with real device;  Clock propagation over the CCD area largely understood; Will use polysilicon gates (30 /sq) covered with aluminium (0.05 /sq) for high speed.

12 Hybrid assembly CPCCD-CMOS Features in our first CPCCD:
2 different charge transfer regions; 3 types of output circuitry; Independent CPCCD and readout chip testing possible: Without bump bonding - use wire bonds to readout chip Without readout chip - use external wire bonded electronics Designed to work in (almost) any case. Standard 2-phase implant Metallised gates (high speed) Field-enhanced 2-phase implant (high speed) Source followers Direct 2-stage source To pre-amps Readout ASIC

13 CPCCD design Designed by E2V (former Marconi Applied Technologies, EEV); Fruitful long-term collaboration: the same people designed the CCDs for VXD2 and VXD3; In production, to be delivered November 2002 Several variants: For standalone testing and for bump bonding; With/without gate and bus line shield metallisation; Variable doping, gate thickness First step in a 5 or 6 stage R&D programme.

14 Test readout chip design
A comparator using Charge Transfer Amplifier, repeated 31 times per ADC Readout chip designed by the Microelectronics Group at RAL; 0.25 m CMOS process; Charge Transfer Amplifiers (CTA) in each ADC comparator; Scalable and designed to work at 50 MHz. CPR-0 : Small chip (2 mm  6 mm) for tests of the flash ADC and voltage amplifiers, already manufactured and delivered, currently being tested; CPR-1 : Contains amplifiers, bit ADCs and FIFO memory in 20 m pitch.

15 Test readout chip design
In CPR-1: Voltage amplifiers – for source follower outputs from the CPCCD Charge amplifiers – for the direct connections to the CPCCD output nodes Amplifier gain in both cases: 100 mV for 2000 e- signal Noise below 100 e- RMS (simulated) Direct connection and charge amplifier have many advantages: Eliminate source followers in the CCD Reduce power  5 times to  1 mW/channel Programmable decay time constant (baseline restoration) ADC full range:  100 mV, AC coupled, Correlated Double Sampling built-in (CTA does it) FIFO 250 5-bit flash ADCs Charge Amplifiers Voltage Amplifiers Wire/bump bond pads Bump bond pads

16 Tests of high-speed CCDs
E2V CCD58 3-phase, frame transfer CCD 2.1 million pixels in 2 sections 12 m square pixels High responsivity: 4 V/electron 2 outputs (3-stage source followers) Bandwidth 60 MHz Test bench for high-speed operation with MIP-like signals

17 Tests of high-speed CCDs 55Fe X-ray spectrum at 50 Mpix/s
MIP-like signal (5.9 keV X-rays generate  1620 electrons); Low noise  50 electrons at 50 MHz clocks; CCD58 is designed to work with large signals at 10 Vpp clocks; No performance deterioration down to 5 Vpp clocks; Still good even at 3 Vpp clocks.

18 Tests of high-speed CCDs
Low drive voltage tests at 50 Mpix/s: Actual clock traces and 55Fe X-ray spectrum Radiation damage effects: Backgrounds:  50 krad/year (e+e- pairs)  109 neutrons/cm2/y (large uncertainty) Radiation damage effects on CCD58 being studied; Radiation-induced CTI should improve a lot at speeds > 5-10 Mpix/s – to be verified; Flexible clocking of CCD58 from MHz to 50 MHz – should be able to get good results; Notes

19 Thin ladder R&D A program to design a CCD support structure with the following properties: Very low mass (< 0.4% X0 – SLD VXD3) Repeatability of the shape to few microns when temperature cycled down to  –100 C; Minimum metastability or hysteresis effects; Compatible with bump bonding; Overall assembly sufficiently robust for safe handling with appropriate jigs; Structure must allow use of gas cooling.

20 Thin ladder R&D Three options:
Unsupported CCDs – thinned to  50 m and held under tension Semi-supported CCDs – thinned to  20 m and attached to thin (and not rigid) support, held under tension; Fully-supported CCDs – thinned to  20 m and bonded to 3D rigid substrate (e.g. Be) The first version has been studied experimentally: sagitta stability vs. tension: better than 2 m at tension > 2N Tension Compression CCD 1 Ceramic Silicon CCD 2 Ladder block Annulus block V and flat sliding joint

21 Semi-supported option currently under study
Unsupported silicon Adhesive pulls silicon down Silicon Ceramics Adhesive Butt joint Several problems: Large differential thermal contractions at the CCD surface (oxides, passivation, metals) – cause lateral curling Handling: testing, bump-bonding, etc. very difficult Semi-supported option currently under study

22 Semi-supported silicon
CCD (20 μm thin) bonded with adhesive pads to 250 μm Be substrate On cooling adhesive contracts more than Be  pulls Si down on to Be surface Layer thickness  0.12% X0 1 mm diameter adhesive columns inside 2 mm diameter wells 200 μm deep in Be substrate 6 m 3 m Extensively simulated using ANSYS, a model will be made soon CCD surface may become dimpled – under study May need very fine pitch of adhesive pad matrix  difficult assembly procedure, weakened substrate, complex non-uniform material profile…

23 Semi-supported structures
Carbon fibre support Aerogel support Carbon fibre: CTE is tunable, layers can have optimal orientation and fibre diameter, difficult to simulate Aerogel support: chemically bonds to Si, aerogel in compression Many other ideas: CVD diamond, vacuum retention, etc…

24 Summary Detector R&D work at the LCFI collaboration is focused on:
Development of very fast column parallel CCD and its readout chip; Study the performance of commercial CCDs with MIP-like signals at high speeds and radiation damage effects; Precision mechanical support of thinned CCDs. CCD-based vertex detector for the future LC is challenging, but looks possible; Major step forward from SLD VXD3, significant customisation required; Many technological problems have to be solved; Have to work hard, R&D is extensive and complex; Different versions of the CPCCD likely to find warm welcome in science and technology. More information is available from LCFI’s web page:

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